Nickel ranks as the 23rd most abundant element in the earth’s crust, with an average concentration of 75 mg/kg. Although relatively low concentrations (1 mg/kg) are typically found in sedimentary rocks such as sandstone, much higher levels can be found in basalt (160 mg/kg) and peridotites and durites (2,000 mg/kg). The chief ores of nickel are pentlandite [(Fe,Ni)9S8], garnierite [(Ni,Mg)6(OH)6(Si4O11)H2O], and limonite [(Ni,Fe)O(OH)·nH2O]. Nickel is also often associated with arsenide ores which, upon mining and smelting, release arsenic into the environment.
KeywordsZinc Toxicity Cobalt Manganese Sandstone
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Ambrose, A.M., P.S. Larson, J.R. Borzelleca, and G.R. Hennigar. 1976. Long-term toxicologic assessment of nickel in rats and dogs. Journal of Food Science and Technology 13:181–187.Google Scholar
- Carson, B.L., H.V. Ellis, and J.L. McCann. 1987. Toxicology and biological monitoring in humans. Lewis Publishing, Chelsea, MI. 328 pp.Google Scholar
- Cordero, R. 1988. Metal Bulletin’s prices and data 1988. Metal Bulletin Books Ltd., Surrey, England. 375 pp.Google Scholar
- Estabrook, G.F., D.W. Burk, D.R. Inman, P.B. Kaufman, J.R. Wells, J.D. Jones, and N. Ghosheh. 1985. Comparison of heavy metals in aquatic plants on Charity Island, Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron, U.S.A., with plants along the shoreline of Saginaw Bay. American Journal of Botany 72:209–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Galloway, W.B., J.L. Lake, D.K. Phelps, P.F. Rogerson, V.T. Bowen, J.W. Farrington, E.D. Goldberg, J.L. Laseter, G.C. Lawler, J.H. Martin, and R.W. Risebrough. 1983. The mussel watch: intercomparison of trace level constituent determinations. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 2:395–410.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Hutchinson, T.C., A. Fedorenko, J. Fitchko, A. Van Loon, and J. Lichwa. 1975. Movement and compartmentation of nickel and copper in an aquatic ecosystem. In: Trace substances in environmental health. IX. A symposium, ed. D.D. Hemphill (Ed.), 89–105. University of Missouri Press, Columbia.Google Scholar
- Patrick, R.T., T. Bott, and R. Larson. 1975. The role of trace elements in management of nuisance growths. US Environmental Protection Agency, EPA 660/2–75–008, Corvallis, OR. 250 pp.Google Scholar
- Schafer, H. 1989. Improving southern California’s coastal waters. Journal of the Water Pollution Control Federation 61:1395–1401.Google Scholar
- Stull, J.K., and R.B. Baird. 1985. Trace metals in marine surface sediments of the Palos Verdes Shelf, 1974 to 1980. Journal of the Water Pollution Control Federation 57:833–840.Google Scholar
- US Environmental Protection Agency. 1989. Office of drinking water health advisories. Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 107: 1–184.Google Scholar
- US Minerals Yearbooks. 1930–1989. Bureau of Mines, US Department of the Interior, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
- Wang, W. 1986. Toxicity tests of aquatic pollutants by using common duckweed. Environmental Pollution 11:1–14.Google Scholar