Nickel ranks as the 23rd most abundant element in the earth’s crust, with an average concentration of 75 mg/kg. Although relatively low concentrations (1 mg/kg) are typically found in sedimentary rocks such as sandstone, much higher levels can be found in basalt (160 mg/kg) and peridotites and durites (2,000 mg/kg). The chief ores of nickel are pentlandite [(Fe,Ni)9S8], garnierite [(Ni,Mg)6(OH)6(Si4O11)H2O], and limonite [(Ni,Fe)O(OH)·nH2O]. Nickel is also often associated with arsenide ores which, upon mining and smelting, release arsenic into the environment.
KeywordsHeavy Metal Brown Trout Water Hardness Marine Pollution Bulletin Pearl Oyster
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