Physiological Effects of Air Pollutants on Western Trees

  • A. Bytnerowicz
  • N. E. Grulke
Part of the Ecological Studies book series (ECOLSTUD, volume 97)


General physiological responses of forest trees to atmospheric pollution are well-documented (Smith 1974, Heath 1980, Guderian 1985, McLaughlin 1985, Wellburn 1988, Darrall 1989). Trees have a higher threshold of tolerance to air pollutants than do herbaceous species (Darrall 1989). Physiological responses of forest trees to air pollution in western North America have many similarities to the responses observed in eastern North America and in Europe. However, the combination of unique air pollution signatures compounded with high concentrations at some sites may result in unique physiological responses in the West. The objective of this chapter is to review recent knowledge on the effects of atmospheric pollutants on Western trees, with a focus on conifers.


Stomatal Conductance Sulfur Dioxide Nitrogen Dioxide Ozone Exposure Simulated Acid Rain 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Bytnerowicz
  • N. E. Grulke

There are no affiliations available

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