Nutrient Transformations in Soils Amended with Green Manures

  • Yandvinder-Singh
  • Bijay-Singh
  • C. S. Khind
Part of the Advances in Soil Science book series (SOIL, volume 20)


The adoption of modern agricultural technologies has revolutionized food grain production bringing it up to levels to feed the quickly growing population of the world. Worldwide there is more grain per capita available today than ever before (Stewart, 1987). The application of plant nutrients to different crops has contributed substantially towards this spectacular increase. Herdt and Capule (1983) estimated that from 1965 to 1980 increase in fertilizer use contributed around 25% of the total increase in rice production in Asia.


Green Manure International Rice Research Institute Sodic Soil Hairy Vetch Green Manure Crop 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Agboola, A.A . 1974. Problems of improving soil fertility by the use of green manuring in tropical farming system. In: Organic Materials as Fertilizers. pp. 147–152. FAO Soils Bull. No. 17, Rome, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  2. Alexander, D. 1988. Fertilizer requirement of rice-rice-green manure cropping system. Int. Rice Res. Newsl. 13(5):27.Google Scholar
  3. Alexander, M. 1977. Symbiotic nitrogen fixation. In: Introduction to Soil Microbiology. pp. 305–330. Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  4. Allison, F.E. 1973. Soil Organic Matter and its Role in Crop Production. Elsevier Science Publishing Company, New York.Google Scholar
  5. Amato, M., and J.N. Ladd. 1980. Studies of nitrogen immobilization and mineralization in calcareous soils: V. Formation and distribution of isotope labelled biomass during decomposition of 14C and 15N-labelled plant material. Soil Biol. Biochem. 12:405–411.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Amato, M., J.N. Ladd, A. Ellington, G. Ford, J.E. Mahoney, A.C. Taylor, and P. Walsgot. 1987. Decomposition of plant material in Australian soil. IV. Decomposition of in-situ of 13C- and 15N-labelled legume and wheat materials in a range of southern Australian soils. Aust. J. Soil Res. 25:95–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Aspiras, R.B. 1966. Some Factors Affecting Ammonification in Flooded Soils. M.S. thesis, University of Philippines, College, Laguna.Google Scholar
  8. Aulakh, M.S., D.A. Rennie, and E.A. Paul. 1983. The effect of various clover management practices on gaseous N losses and mineral N accumulation. Can. J. Soil Sci. 63:593–605.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Azam, F., K.A. Malik, and M.I. Sajjad. 1985. Transformation in soil and availability to plants of15N applied as inorganic fertilizer and legume residues. Plant Soil 86:3–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bajpai, P.D., R. Arya, and B.R. Gupta. 1980. Comparative studies on decomposition pattern of some plant materials in two different soil conditions during winter season. Indian J. Agric. Res. 14:91–102.Google Scholar
  11. Bajpai, S., O.P. Srivastava, and A.N. Pathak. 1984. Effect of organic matter on urea hydrolysis in soil. In: Nitrogen in Soils, Crops and Fertilizers. pp. 155–159 Bull No. 13, Indian Society of Soil Science, New Delhi.Google Scholar
  12. Bao, Xue-ming, and Yu, Tian-ren. 1986. Stability constants of Fe (II) complexes in soil. [in Chinese with English summary] Acta Pedol. Sin. 23:40–43.Google Scholar
  13. Bao, Xue-ming, Liu, Zhi-guang, and Yu, Tian-ren. 1978. Studies on oxidation-reduction processes in paddy soils. IX. Forms of water soluble ferrrous iron. Acta Pedol Sin. 15:174–181.Google Scholar
  14. Bao, Xue-ming, Ding Chang-pu, and Yu, Tian-ren. 1983. Stability constants of Mn (II)—Complexes in soils as determined by a voltametric method. Z. Pflanzenern. Bodenkd. 146:285–294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Barrow, N.J. 1960. A comparison of the mineralization of nitrogen and of sulphur from decomposing organic materials. Aust. J. Agri. Res. 11:960–969.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Beri, V., O.P. Meelu, and C.S. Khind. 1989a. Biomass production, N accumulation, symbiotic effectiveness and mineralization of green manures in relation to yield of wetland rice. Trop. Agric. (Trinidad) 66:11–16.Google Scholar
  17. Beri, V., O.P. Meelu, and C.S. Khind. 1989b. Studies onSesbania aculeataPers. as green manure for N accumulation and substitution of fertilizer N in wetland rice. Trop. Agric. (Trinidad) 66:209 –212.Google Scholar
  18. Bhagat, R.M., B.B. Kanwar, T.S. Verma, and R.S. Minhas. 1988. Nitrogen economy in lowland rice culture. Oryza 25:255–260.Google Scholar
  19. Bhardwaj, K.K.R., and S.P. Dev. 1985. Production and decomposition ofSesbania canabina(Retz) Pers. in relation to its effect on the yield and wetland rice. Trop. Agric. (Trinidad) 62:233–236.Google Scholar
  20. Bhattacharya, D., and B. Das. 1975. Mobilization of iron in soil and its influence on phosphorus availability through the chelating effects of aqueous extracts of some green manuring plant materials. J. Indian Chemical Soc. 52:726–729.Google Scholar
  21. Biederbeck, V.O. 1978. Soil organic sulphur and fertility. In M. Schnitzer and S.U. Khan (eds.). Soil Organic Matter. pp. 273–310. Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Bijay-Singh, Yadvinder-Singh, U.S. Sadana, and O.P. Meelu. 1992. Effect of green manure, wheat straw and organic manures on DTPA extractable Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu in a calcareous sandy loam soil at field capacity and under waterlogged conditions. J. Indian Soc. Soil Sci. 40:000–000Google Scholar
  23. Bin, Jiao 1983. Utilization of green manure for raising soil fertility in China. Soil Sci. 135:65–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Biswas, T.K. 1988. Nitrogen Dynamics and Nitrogen-15 Balance in Lowland Rice as Affected by Green Manure and Urea Application. Ph.D. thesis. Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi.Google Scholar
  25. Black, C.A . 1968. Soil-Plant Relationships (2nd ed.) Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  26. Blair, G.J., and O.W. Boland. 1978. The release of phosphorus from plant material added to soil. Aust. J. Soil Res. 16:101–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Bolten, Jr. H., L.F. Elliot, R.T. Papandick, and D.F. Bezdicek. 1985. Soil microbial biomass and selected enzyme activities. Effect of fertilizers and cropping practices. Soil Biol. Biochem. 17:297–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Bouldin, D.R. 1988. Effect of green manure on soil organic matter content and nitrogen availability. In: Green Manure in Rice Farming. pp. 151–163. International Rice Research Institute, Los Banos, Philippines.Google Scholar
  29. Bremner, J.M., and R.L. Mulvaney. 1978. Urease activity in soils. In R.G. Burns (ed.). Soil Enzymes, pp. 149–196. Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  30. Brewbaker, J.L. 1987. Leucaena: a group of multipurpose treses for tropical agroforesty. In: Ten Years of Development in Agroforestry. International Council for Research in Agro-Forestry, Nairobi, Kenya.Google Scholar
  31. Brown, P.L., and D.D. Dickey 1970. Losses of wheat straw residue under simulated field conditions. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 34:118–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Bruulsema, T.W., B.R. Christie. 1987. Nitrogen contribution to succeeding corn from alfalfa and red clover. Agron. J. 79:96–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Burns, R.G. 1978. Enzyme activity in soil. Some theoretical and practical consideration. In R.G. Burns (ed.). Soil Enzymes. pp. 295–340. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  34. Cang Dong-ging, Wang Jing-hua and Zhang Xiao-nian. 1985. Acidity In Tu Tian-ren (ed.). Physical Chemistry of Paddy Soils. pp. 131–156. Science Press, BeijingGoogle Scholar
  35. Carmona, G., C.B. Christianson, and B.H. Byrens. 1990. Temperature and low concentration effect of the urease inhibitors N-(n-butyl thiophosphoric triamide (NBTPT) on ammonia volatilization from urea. Soil Biol. Biochem. 22:933–937.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Ceccenti, B., and C. Ding. 1985. Anaerobic decomposition of green manures in flooded soils in the presence of Cr (VI). 2. Charge and size characterization of decaying products and their metal complexes. Agrochimica 29:50–65.Google Scholar
  37. Ceccenti, B., C.P. Ding, M. De Nobili, M. Calcinoi, and R. Tersitano. 1990. Volatile fatty acids and N dynamics in soils amended with plant residues in soils amended with plant residues under flooding. Trans. 14th Int. Congr. Soil Sci. 4:766–767.Google Scholar
  38. Chahal, D.S., and S.S. Khera. 1988. Effect of green manuring on iron transformations in soils under submerged and unsubmerged conditions. J. Indian Soc. Soil Sci. 36:433–438.Google Scholar
  39. Chatterjee, B.N., K.I. Singh, A. Pal, and S. Maiti. 1979. Organic manures as substitutes for chemical fertilizers for high yield rice varieties. Indian J. Agric. Sci. 49:188–192.Google Scholar
  40. Chen Shi-ping. 1983. Green manures in multiple cropping systems in China. In Fertilizer Use under Multiple Cropping Systems. pp. 143–150. FAO Fertilizer and Plant Nutrition Bulletin 5, FAO, Rome.Google Scholar
  41. Cornforth, I.S., and J.B. Davis. 1968. Nitrogen transformations in tropical soil. I. The mineralization of nitrogen rich organic materials added to soil. Trop. Agric. (Trinidad) 45:211–221.Google Scholar
  42. De Haan, S. 1977. Humus, its formation, its relation with the mineral part of the soil and its significance for soil productivity. In Soil Organic Matter Studies. pp. 21–30, Vol. 1. IAEA/FAO, Vienna.Google Scholar
  43. Debnath, N.C., and J.N. Hajra. 1972. Transformation of organic matter in soil in relation to mineralization of carbon and nitrogen availability. J. Indian Soc. Soil Sci. 20:95–102.Google Scholar
  44. Dhillon, K.S., and S.K. Dhillon. 1991. Relative contribution of green manures in sulphur nutrition of toria (Brassica compestris). J. Nuclear Agric. Biol. 20:128–133.Google Scholar
  45. Duxbury, J.M., P.P. Motavalli, and W. Goedert. 1989. Ion movement in Cerrado Soils: The effects of inorganic and organic amendments on sulphur (S) availability. Trop. Soils Tech. Rep. 1986–1987. pp. 315–318. North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NCGoogle Scholar
  46. Enwezor, W.O. 1976. The mineralization of nitrogen and phosphorus in organic materials of varying C:N and C:P ratios. Plant Soil 44:237–240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Floate, M.J.S. 1970. Decomposition of organic materials from hill soils and pastures. III. The effect of temperature on mineralization of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus from plant materials and sheep faeces. Soil Biol. Biochem. 2:187–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Frankenberger W.T., Jr., and H.M. Abdelmagid. 1985. Kinetic parameters of nitgoren mineralization rates of leguminous crops incorporated into soil. Plant Soil 87:257–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Fuher, F., and D. Sauerbeck. 1968. Decomposition of wheat straw in the field as influenced by cropping and rotation. In: Isotopes and Radiation in Soil Organic Matter Studies. pp. 241–250. IAEA, Vienna.Google Scholar
  50. Fujii, K., M. Kobayashi, and E. Takahashi. 1972. Amines in the mixture of plant residue and sand incubated under aerobic and waterlogged conditions. J. Sci. Soil Manure, Japan. 43:160–164.Google Scholar
  51. Fulkerson, R.S . 1983. Research review of forage production. Crop Science Department, University of Guelph, Guelph, OntarioGoogle Scholar
  52. Fuller, W.H., D.R. Nielsen, and R.W. Miller. 1956. Some factors influencing the utilization of phosphorus from crop residues. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 20:218–224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Gale, P.M., and J.T. Gilmour. 1988. Net mineralization of carbon and nitrogen under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 52:1006–1010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Gilmour, J.T., M.D. Clark, and G.C. Sigua. 1985. Estimating net nitrogen mineralization from CO2 evolution. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 49:1398–1402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Gopala Rao, H.G. 1956. Effect of green manuring on red loamy soils freshly brought under swamp paddy cultivation with particularly reference to availability of iron and manganese. J. Indian Soc. Soil Sci. 4:225–231.Google Scholar
  56. Groffman, P.M., D.F. Herdrix, C. Han, and D.A. Crossby, Jr. 1987. In J.F. Power (ed.). The Role of Legumes in Conservation Tillage Systems. pp. 7–8. Soil Conservation Society of America, AnkenyGoogle Scholar
  57. Gu Rong-Shen and Wen Qi-Xiao. 1981. Cultivation and application of green manure in paddy field of China. In: Proc. Symp. on Paddy Soil. pp. 207–219. Science Press, Beijing; Springer-Verlag, New York.Google Scholar
  58. Haider, K., J.P. Martin, and E. Rietz. 1977. Decomposition in soil of14C-labelled coumaryl alcohols, free and linked into dehydropolymer and plant lignins and model humic acids. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 41:556–562.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Hannapel, R.J., W.H. Fuller, and R.H. Fox. 1964. Phosphorus movement in a caclareous soil. 2. Microbial activity and organic P movement. Soil Sci. 97:421–426.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Hargrove, W.L. 1986. Winter legumes as a nitrogen source for no-till grain sorghum. Agron. J. 78:70–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Harrison, A.F. 1971. The inhibitory effect of oak leaf litter tannins on the growth of fungi in relation to their decomposition. Soil Biol. Biochem. 3:167–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Haynes, R.J. 1986. Mineral Nitrogen in the Plant-Soil System. Academic Press, Inc. New York.Google Scholar
  63. He, Qun, and Xu, Zuyi 1981. Influence of transformation of iron oxides on soil structure. In Proceedings of Symposium on Paddy Soil. pp. 699–703. Institute of Soil Science, academa, ed., Science Press, Beijing, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York.Google Scholar
  64. Herdt, R.W. and C. Capule. 1983. Adoption, spread, and production impact of modern rice varieties in Asia. Int. Rice. Res. Inst., Manila, Philippines.Google Scholar
  65. Herman, W.A., W.B., McGill, and J.F. Dormaar. 1977. Effect of initial chemical composition on decomposition of roots of three grass species. Can. J. Soil Sci. 57:202–215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Hodgson, J.F., W.L Lindsay, and J.F. Trierweiler. 1966. Micronutrient cation complexing in soil solution. II. Complexing of zinc and copper in displaced solution from calcareous soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 30:723–726.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Huang, D.M., J.H. Gao, and P.L. Zhu. 1981. Transformation and distribution of organic and inorganic fertilizer nitrogen in rice-soil system (in Chinese, English summary). Acta Pedol. Sin. 18:107–121.Google Scholar
  68. Hundal, H.S., C.R. Biswas, and A.C. Vig. 1987. The utilization by rice of P from different32 P labelled green manures. Biol. Wastes 22:97–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Hundal, H.S., C.R. Biswas, and A.C. Vig. 1988. Phosphorus sorption characteristics of flooded soil amended with green manures. Trop. Agric. (Trinidad) 65:185–187.Google Scholar
  70. Iritani, W.M., and C.Y. Arnold. 1960. Nitrogen release of vegetable crop residues during incubation as related to their chemical composition. Soil Sci. 89:74–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Ishikawa, M . 1963. Soil scientific and plant nutritional study on the milk vetch manuring of rice. Toyama Agric. Exp. Stn. Spec. Stud. Rep. 5Google Scholar
  72. Ishikawa, M. 1988. Green manure in rice. The Japanese experience. In: Green Manure in Rice Farming. pp. 45–61. International Rice Research Institute, Los Banos, Philippines.Google Scholar
  73. Islam, A., and W. Islam. 1973. Chemistry of submerged soils and growth and yield of rice. I. Benefits from submergence. Plant Soil 39:555–565.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Ito, O., and I. Watanabe. 1985. Availability to rice plants of nitrogen fixed by Azolla. Soil Sci. Plant Nutr. 31(1):91–104.Google Scholar
  75. Iu, K.L., I.D. Pulford, and H.J. Duncan. 1981. Influence of waterlogging and lime or organic matter additions on the distribution of trace metals in an acid soil. Plant Soil 59:327–333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Janzen, H.H., and G.D. Radder. 1989. Nitrogen mineralization in a green manure-amended soil as influenced by cropping history and subsequent crop. Plant Soil 120:125–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Janzen, H.H., J.B. Bole, V.O. Biederbeck, and A.E. Slinkare. 1990. Fate of N applied as green manure or ammonium fertilizer to soil subsequently cropped with spring wheat at three sites in Western Canada. Can. J. Soil Sci. 70:313–323CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Jenkinson, D.S. 1977. Studies on decomposition of plant material in soil. V. The effects of plant cover and soil type on the loss of carbon from14C-labelled rye grass decomposing under field conditions. J. Soil Sci. 28:417–423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Jenkinson, D.S. 1981. The fate of plant and animal residues in soil. In D.J. Greenland and M.H.B. Hayes (eds.). The Chemistry of Soil Processes. Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  80. Jenkinson, D.S., and A. Ayanaba. 1977. Decomposition of14C labelled plant material under tropical condition. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 41:912–915.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Jensen, E.S. 1989. The role of pea cultivation in the N economy of soils and succeeding crops. In P. Plancquaert and R. Haggar (eds.). Legumes in Farming Systems. pp. 3–15. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, Dordrecht.Google Scholar
  82. Joachim, A.W.R. 1931. The principles of green manuring and their application in Ceylon. In: A Manual of Green Manuring, pp. 5–34. Department of Agriculture, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka.Google Scholar
  83. Joachim, A.W.R., and S. Kandiah. 1929. Laboratory and field studies on green manuring under paddy land (anaerobic) conditions. Trop. Agric. (Sri Lanka) 72:253–271.Google Scholar
  84. John, P.S., R.J. Buresh, R. Prasad, and R.K. Pandey. 1989a. Nitrogen gas (N2 + N2O) flux from urea applied to lowland rice as affected by green manure. Plant Soil 119:7–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. John, P.S., R.K. Pandey, R.J. Buresh, and R. Prasad. 1989b. Lowland rice response to urea following three cowpea cropping systems. Agron. J. 81:853–857.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Jordan, J.V., and G.O. Baker. 1959. Sulphur studies in North Idaho soils using radiosulphur. Soil Sci. 88:1–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Kaila, A . 1954. Microbiological fixation and mineralization of phosphorus during the decomposition of organic matter. Z. Pflenaehr Dung. 64:27–35 (c.f. Soil Fertil. 17:946.)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Kaila, A . 1954. Microbiological fixation and mineralization of phosphorus during the decomposition of organic matter. Z. Pflenaehr Dung. 64: 27–35 (c.f. Soil Fertil. 17:946.)Google Scholar
  89. Katyal, J.C. 1977. Influence of organic matter on the chemical and electrochemical properties of some flooded soils. Soil Biol. Biochem. 9:259–266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Khalid, R.A., W.H. Patrick, Jr., and R.D. Delaune. 1977. Phosphorus sorption characteristics of flooded soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 41:305–310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Khind, C.S., A.S. Josan, and V. Beri. 1985. N release from sesbania green manure and effect of time of application of N fertilizer on lowland rice. Int. Rice Res. Newsl. 10(4):26–27Google Scholar
  92. Khind, C.S., A. Jugsujinda, C.W. Lindau, and W.H. Patrick, Jr. 1987. Effect of sesbania straw in a flooded soil on soil pH, redox potential, and water-soluble nutrients. Int. Rice Res. Newsl. 12(3):42–43.Google Scholar
  93. Khind, C.S., A. Garg, and M.S. Bajwa. 1989. Effect of sesbania green manure and wheat straw on ammonia volatilization loss in wetland soil. Int. Rice Res. Newsl. 14(2):31–32.Google Scholar
  94. Khind, C.S., A. Garg, and M.S. Bajwa. 1991. Effect of sesbania, rice straw and pre-incubation on urea hydrolysis in wetland soil. Int. Rice Res. Newsl. 16(2):18.Google Scholar
  95. King, H.G.C., and G.W. Heath. 1967. The chemical analysis of small samples of leaf material and the relationship between the disappearance and composition of leaves. Pedobiologia 7:192–197.Google Scholar
  96. Krishna Rao, D.V., T. Seshagiri Rao, and P, Krishnamurthy. 1961. Green manure as a source of nitrogen to rice grown in regurs of the Nizam Sagar Project area. J. Indian Soc. Soil Sci. 9:119–123Google Scholar
  97. Kute, S.B., and H.S. Mann. 1969. Effect of green manuring on the composition of soil and wheat crop and the balance of major plant nutrients in the soil after the crop. Indian J. Agric. Sci. 39:10–17.Google Scholar
  98. Ladd, J.N., and M. Amato. 1986. The fate of nitrogen from legume and fertilizer sources of soils successively cropped with wheat under field conditions. Soil Biol Biochem. 18:417–425.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Ladd, J.N., J.M. Oades, and M. Amato. 1981a. Microbial biomass formed from 14C, 15N-labelled plant material decomposing in soils in the field. Soil Biol. Biochem. 13:119–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Ladd, J.N., J.M. Oades, and M. Amato. 1981b. Distribution and recovery of nitrogen from legume residues decomposing in soils sown to wheat in the field. Soil Biol. Biochem. 13:251–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Ladd, J.N., M. Amato, R.B. Jackson, and J.H.A. Butler. 1983a. Utilization by wheat crops of nitrogen from legume residues decomposing in soils in the field. Soil Biol. Biochem. 15:231–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Ladd, J.N., R.B. Jackson, M. Amato, and J.H.A. Butler. 1983b. Decomposition of plant material in Australian Soils. 1. The effect of quantity added on decomposition and on residual microbial biomass. Aust. J. Soil Res. 21:563–570.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Ladha, J.K., S. Miyan, and M. Garcia. 1989. Sesbania rostrata as a green manure for lowland rice: Growth, N2 fixation, Azorhizobium sp. inoculation, and effects on succeeding crop yields and nitrogen balance. Biol. Fertil. Soils 7:191–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Lathwell, D.J., D.R. Bouldin, W.T. Bowen, and F. Costa. 1989. Soil- and crop management systems for acid Savanna soil using green manures and crop residues as a source. In Tropsoils Technical Report (1981–1987). pp. 305–309. North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC.Google Scholar
  105. Lin, X., and Q. Wen. 1990. Decomposition of plant material in calcareous soils in north China plain. Trans. 14th Int. Congr. Soil Sci. Commission III:351–352.Google Scholar
  106. Liu Chung-Chu. 1988. Integrated use of green manure in rice fields in South China. In Green Manure in Rice Farming. pp. 319–331. International Rice Research Institute, Los Banos, Philippines.Google Scholar
  107. Lohnis, F. 1926. Nitrogen availability of green manures. Soil Sci. 22:253–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Lynch, D.L., and L.J. Cotnoir, Jr. 1956. The influence of clay minerals on the breakdown of certain organic substrates. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 20:367–370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Maskina, M.S., P.S. Sandhu, and O.P. Meelu. 1985. Effect of integrated use of organic and inorganic nitrogen sources on growth and nutrient composition of rice seedlings. Oryza 22:11–16.Google Scholar
  110. McCalla, T.M., and F.L. Duley. 1943. Disintegration of crop residues as influenced by subtillage and plowing. Agron. J. 35:306–315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. McCalla, T.M., and J.C. Russel. 1948. Nitrate production as affected by sweet clover residues left on the surface of the soil. Agron. J. 40:411–421.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Meelu, O.P., and R.S. Rekhi. 1981. Mung straw management and nitrogen economy in rice culture. Int. Rice Res. Newsl. 64(4):21.Google Scholar
  113. Meelu, O.P., Yadvinder-Singh, and Bijay-Singh. In press. Green manuring for soil productivity improvement. FAO Soils Bulletin.Google Scholar
  114. Melillo, J.M., J.D. Aber, and J.F. Muratore. 1982. Nitrogen and lignin control of hardwood leaf litter decomposition dynamics. Ecol. Monogr. 63:621–626.Google Scholar
  115. Merckx, R., A. Dijkstra, A. den Hartog, and J.A. Van Veen. 1987. Production of root-derived material and associated microbial growth in soil at different nutrient levels. Biol. Fertil. Soils 5:126–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Mian, H.H. 1985. Detection of denitrification, by a15N tracer technique, of nitrogen released from azolla and blue green algae in a flooded soil. Aust. J. Soil Res. 23:245–252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Mian, M.H., and W.D.P. Stewart. 1985. A15N tracer study to compare N supply by Azolla and ammonium sulfate to IR8 rice plants grown under flooded conditions. Plant Soil 83:371–379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Mishra, B., R.D. Sharma, and J.R. Murthy. 1990. Effect on neem cake and shellac coating of urea and green manure on ammonia volatilization and nitrogen use efficiency for rice. J. Indian Soc. Soil Sci. 38:224–228.Google Scholar
  119. Morachan, Y.B., W.C. Moldenhaner, and W.E. Larson. 1972. Effect of increasing amounts of organic residues on continuous corn. I. Yield and soil physical properties. Agron. J. 64:199–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Motomura, S. 1962. The effect of organic matter on the formation of ferrous iron in soil. Soil Sci. Pl. Nutr. 8:20–29.Google Scholar
  121. Muller, M.M. 1987. Leaching of substerrarean clover derived N from a loam soil. Plant Soil 102:185–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Nagarajah, S. 1988. Transformation of green manure nitrogen in lowland rice soils. In Green Manure in Rice Farming. pp. 193–208. International Rice Research Institute, Los Banos, Philippines.Google Scholar
  123. Nagarajah, S., M.C.G. Robielos, and H.U. Neune. 1986. Effect of incorporation of sesbania, azolla and rice straw on nitrogen release pattern in flooded rice soils. International Rice Research Institute, Saturday Seminar, Department of Soils, Aug. 2Google Scholar
  124. Nagarajah, S., H.U. Neue, and M.C.R. Alberto. 1989. Effect of sesbania, azolla and rice straw incorporation on the kinetics of NH4, K, Fe, Mn, Zn and P in some flooded soils. Plant Soil 116:37–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Palm, O., W.L. Weerakoon, M.A.P. DeSilva, and R. Thomas. 1988. Nitrogen mineralization of Sesbania sesban used as green manure for lowland rice in Sri Lanka. Plant Soil 108:210–209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Pan, Shu-Zhang . 1985. In Yu, Tian-ren (ed.). Physical Chemistry of Paddy Soils. pp. 92–. Science Press, Beijing, ChinaGoogle Scholar
  127. Parker, D.T. 1962. Decomposition in the field of buried and surface applied cornstalk residue. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 28:559–562.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Patrick, W.H. Jr., and R.A. Khalid. 1974. Phosphate release and sorption by soils and sediments: Effect of aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Science 186:53–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Paul, E.A. 1976. Nitrogen in terrestrial ecosystem. In J.O. Nriagu (ed.). Environmental Biochemistry, Vol. 1: Carbon, Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Sulfur and Selenium Cycles. pp. 225–243. Ann Arbor Science, Ann Arbor, MI.Google Scholar
  130. Paul, E.A. 1988. Towards the year 2000: directions for future nitrogen research. In J.R. Wilsen (ed.). Advances in Nitrogen Cycling in Agriculture Ecosystems. pp. 417–425. C.A.B. International, Wallingford.Google Scholar
  131. Pierre, W.H., and W.L. Banwart. 1973. Excess base and excess base/nitrogen ratios of various crop species and plant parts. Agron. J. 65:91–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Pinck, L.A., and F.E. Allison. 1961. Adsorption and release of urease by and from clay minerals. Soil Sci. 91:183–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Ponnamperuma, F.N. 1965. Dynamics aspects of flooded soils and the nutrition of the rice plant. In Mineral Nutrition of the Rice Plant. pp. 295–328. Johns Hopkins Press, Baltimore, MD.Google Scholar
  134. Ponnamperuma, F.N. 1972. The chemistry of submerged soils. Adv. Agron. 24:29–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Prabhakar, A.S., S.V. Patil, and K. Krishnamurthy. 1972. Influence of organic manures, ammonical and nitrate nitrogen on the availability of soil and applied phosphorus. J. Indian Soc. Soil Sci. 20:413–415.Google Scholar
  136. Primrose, S.B. 1979. Ethylene and agriculture: The role of microbe. J. Appl. Bact. 46:1–25.Google Scholar
  137. Ramaswami, P.A., and D. Raj. 1973. Effect of green manure and nutrient applications on the changes in soil microbial populations. Madras Agric. J. 60:995–1000.Google Scholar
  138. Rao, D., and D.S. Mikkelsen. 1977. Effect of acetic, propionic and butyric acids on young rice seedlings growth. Agron. J. 69:923–928.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Rao, D.L.N., and L. Batra. 1983. Ammonia volatilization from applied nitrogen in alkali soils. Plant Soil 70:219–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Sadana, U.S., and M.S. Bajwa. 1985. Manganese equilibrium in submerged sodic soils as influenced by application of gypsum and green manuring. J. Agri. Sci. Camb. 104:257–261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Sadana, U.S., and M.S. Bajwa. 1986. Effect of gypsum and green manuring on electrochemical and chemical changes in submerged sodic soils. Oryza 23:89–95.Google Scholar
  142. Saha, K.C., and L.N. Mandal. 1979. Effect of algal growth on the availability of phosphorus, iron and manganese in rice soils. Plant Soil 52:139–149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Saini, P . 1990. In Situ Leaching and Transformations of Urea Applied to Wetland Rice Soils. M.Sc. thesis, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  144. Santra, G.H., D.K. Das, and L.N. Mandal. 1988. Loss of nitrogen through ammonia volatilization from flooded rice fields. J. Indian Soc. Soil Sci. 36:652–659.Google Scholar
  145. Saravanan, A., V. Velu, and K.M. Ramanathan. 1988. Effect of sources and methods of nitrogen application on volatilization loss of ammonia and yield of rice under submerged soils of Cauvery delta, India. Oryza. 25:143–148.Google Scholar
  146. Sauerbeck, D. 1966. A critical evaluation of incubation experiments on the priming effect of green manure. In The Use of Isotopes in Soil Organic Matter Studies, pp. 209–221. Report FAO/IAEA Technical Meeting, Pergamon, Oxford.Google Scholar
  147. Sharma, A.R., and B.N. Mittra. 1988. Effect of green manuring and mineral fertilizer on growth and yield of crops in rice based cropping on lateritic soil. J. Agric. Sci. Camb. 110:605–608.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Sharma, B.D., and J.C. Katyal. 1982. Changes in DTPA-iron and management of iron chlorosis in rice nurseries. Plant Soil 69:123–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Sharma, R.C., P.M. Govindakrishnan, R.P. Singh, and H.C. Sharma. 1988. Effect of farmyard manure and green manures on crop yields and nitrogen needs of potato based cropping system in Punjab. J. Agric. Sci. Camb. 110:499–504.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Shi Shu-lian, L.L. Cheng, H.H. Lin, C.L. Shu, and C.H. Wen. 1978. Effect of azolla on the fertility of paddy soils (in Chinese, English summary). Acta Pedol. Sin. 15:54–60.Google Scholar
  151. Shi Shu-lian, Lin Xin-Xiong and Wen Qi-Wia. 1981. Decomposition of plant materials in relation to their chemical composition in paddy soil. In Proceedings Symposium on Paddy Soil. pp. 306–310. Institute of Soil Science, Academia, Sinica.Google Scholar
  152. Shim, K., W.E. Splittstoesser, J.S., Titus. 1973. Changes in urease activity in apple trees as related to urea applications. Physiol. Plant 28:327–334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Silva, E.M.R. De., D.L. De Almeida, A.A. Franco, and J. Dobereiner. 1985. Effect of green manuring on the availability of phosphate on an acid soil. Reviste Brasileira de Ciencia do Solo 9(1):85–88.Google Scholar
  154. Sims, J.L., and L.R. Frederick. 1970. N immobilization and decomposition of corn residue in soil and sand as affected by residue particle size. Soil Sci. 109:355–361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Singh, A. 1962. Studies on the modus operandi of green manures in tropical climates: A critical review of literature. Indian J. Agron. 7:69–75.Google Scholar
  156. Singh, B.B., and J.P. Jones. 1976. Phosphorus sorption and desorption characteristics of soil as affected by organic residues. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 40:389–394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Singh, N.T. 1984. Green manures as source of nutrients in rice production. In Organic Matter and Rice. pp. 217–228. International Rice Research Institute, Los Banos, Philippines.Google Scholar
  158. Singh, P.K., B.C. Panigrahi, and K.B. Satapathy. 1981. Comparative efficiency of Azolla, blue-green algae and other organic manures in relation to N and P availability in a flooded rice soil. Plant Soil 62:35–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Singh, S., and R.N. Rai. 1973. Effect of soil, superphosphate and age at burial of legumes on the changes in inorganic and organic phosphorus during their decomposition. J. Indian Soc. Soil Sci. 21:271–276.Google Scholar
  160. Singh, S., and R.N. Rai. 1975. Effect of salinity, alkalinity, phosphate and age of plants on mineralization of nitrogen fromSesbania aculeataandMelilotus albaafter their incorporation of soil. J. Indian Soc. Soil Sci. 23:122.Google Scholar
  161. Smith, A.M. 1976. Ethylene in soil biology. Ann. Rev. Phytopathol. 14:53–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Smith M.S., W.W. Frye, and J.J Varco. 1987. Legume winter cover crops. Adv. Soil Sci. 7:95–139.Google Scholar
  163. Sorensen, L.H. 1975. The influence of clay on the rate of decay of amino acid metabolites synthesized in soil during the decomposition of cellulose. Soil Biol. Biochem. 7:171–177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Srivasta, L.L., N. Ahmed, and B. Mishra. 1984. Studies on nitrogen and carbon status of soils as affected by crop residues, farmyard manure ang green manures. In Nitrogen in Soils, Crops and Fertilizers. pp. 277–284. Bull. No. 13, Indian Society of Soil Science, New Delhi.Google Scholar
  165. Srivasta, S.C., and S.M.H. Jafri. 1973. Tracer assessment of mobilization of soil phosphorous due to sunn green manuring. J. Indian Soc. Soil Sci. 21:403–405.Google Scholar
  166. Stewart, B.A 1987. Preface. Adv. Soil Sci. 7:i–vii. Springer-Verlag, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  167. Stott, D.E, and J.P Martin. 1989. Organic matter decomposition and retention in arid soils. Arid Soil Res. And Rehabilitation. 3:115–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Subbiah, B.V, and N.D. Mannikar. 1964. Selection of green manure crops for the utake of sub-soil phosphorous studies with P32. Indian J. Agric. Sci. 34:21–27.Google Scholar
  169. Subramani, S., and S. Kannaiyan. 1987. Effect of urea on decomposition of azolla. Int. Rice Res. Newsl. 12(4):57.Google Scholar
  170. Swarup, A. 1987. Effect of presubmergence and green manuring (Sesbania aculeata) on nutrition and yield of wetland rice (Oryza sativaL.) on a sodic soil. Biol. Fertil. Soils 5:203–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Swift, M.J., O.W. Heal, and J.M. Anderson. 1979. Decomposition in Terrestrial Ecosystems. Blackwell, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  172. Takeda, K., and C. Furusaka. 1975. Studies on the bacteria isolated anaerobically from paddy field condition. III. Production of fatty acids and ammonia byClostridiumspecies. Soil Sci. Plant Nutr. Tokyo 21:113–118.Google Scholar
  173. Takkar, P.N., and V.K. Nayyar. 1986. Integrated approach to combat micronutrient deficiency. Paper presented in the seminar on growth and moderanization of the fertility industry. Dec. 15–17. FAI, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  174. Thind, H.S., and D.S Chahal. 1983. Iron equilibria in submerged soil as influenced by green manuring and iron application. J. Agric. Sci. (Camb.) 101:207–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Thind, H.S., And D.S. Chahal. 1987. Effect of green manuring (Sesbania aculeata) on zinc equilibria in submerged calcareous and noncalcareous soils. Biol. Fertil. Soils 3:179–182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Thomas, G.V., and M.V. Shantaram. 1984. In situ cultivation and incorporation of green manure legumes in coconut basins. Plant Soil 80:373–380.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Thompson, J.F. 1980. Arginine synthesis, proline synthesis, and related process. In B.J. Miflin (ed.). The Biochemistry of Plants. pp. 375–402. Volume 5, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  178. Thompson, L.M., C.A. Black, and J.A Zoelluer. 1954. Occurrence and mineralization of organic P in soil with particular reference to association with N, C and pH. Soil Sci. 77:185–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Tiwari, K.N., A.N. Pathak, and H. Ram. 1980. Green manuring in combination with fertilizer nitrogen on rice under double cropping system in an alluvial soil. J. Indian Soc. Soil Sci. 28:162–169.Google Scholar
  180. Triplett, G.B., F. Haghiri, and D.M. Van Doren. 1979. Plowing effect of corn yield response to N. following alfalfa. Agron. J. 71:801–803.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Tsutsuki, K. 1984. Volatile products and low-molecular weight phenolic products of the anaerobic decomposition of organic matter. In Organic Matter and Rice. pp. 329–343. International Rice Research Institute, Los Banos, Philippines.Google Scholar
  182. Tusneem, M.E., and W.H. Patrick, Jr. 1971. Nitrogen Transformations in Waterlogged Soils, La Agric. Exp. Sta. Bull. 657Google Scholar
  183. Vallis, I., and R.J. Jones. 1973. Net mineralization of nitrogen in leaves and leaf litter ofDesmodium intortumand Phaseolus atropurpureus mixed with soil. Soil Biol. Biochem. 5:391–398.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Van Faassen, H.G., and H. Van Dijk. 1987. Manure as a source of nitrogen and phosphorus in soils. In H.G. v. d. Meer et al. (eds). Animal Manure on Grassland and Fodder Crops. pp. 27–45. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  185. Van Veen, J.A., R. Merckx, and S.C. Van de Geijn. 1989. Plant and soil-related controls of the flow of carbon from roots through soil microbial biomass. Plant Soil 115:179–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Varco, J.J. 1986. Tillage Effects on Transformation of Legume and Fertilizer Nitrogen and Crop Recovery of Residue Nitrogen. Ph. D. thesis, University of Kentucky, Lexington.Google Scholar
  187. Varco, J.J., W.W. Frye, M.S. Smith, and J.H. Grove. 1987. Legume nitrogen transformation and recovery by corn as influenced by tillage. In J.F. Power (ed.). The Role of Legumes in Conservation Tillage Systems . pp. 40. Soil Conservation Society of America.Google Scholar
  188. Velu, V., A. Saravanan, and K.M. Ramanathan. 1988. Leaching loss of nitrogen in clay loam soils of Cauvery delta. Oryza 25:374–379.Google Scholar
  189. Venkatakrishnan, S. 1980. Mineralization of green manure (Sesbania aculeata, Pers.) nigrogen in sodic and reclaimed soils under flooded conditions. Plant Soil 54:149–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Ventura, M., and I. Watanabe. 1990. Azolla and sesbania: Organic fertilizers. Paper presented at the Philippines Environment Conference on 14–18 June, 1990, Manila, PhilippinesGoogle Scholar
  191. Waid, J.S., and A. Chulan. 1981. Release of nitrogen from decomposing legume roots and nodules. In Proc. Symp. on Paddy Soil. pp. 320–322. Science Press, Beijing, Springer Verlag, New York.Google Scholar
  192. Wagger, M.G. 1989. Time of desiccation effects on plant composition and subsequent nitrogen release from several winter annual cover crops. Agron. J. 81:236–241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Wang, T.S.C., S.Y. Cheng, and H. Tung. 1967a. Dynamics of soil acids. Soil Sci. 104:138–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Wang, T.S.C., T.K. Yang, and T.T. Chuan. 1967b. Soil alcohols, their dynamics and their effect upon plant growth. Soil Sci. 104:40–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. Watanabe, I. 1984. Use of green manures in Northeast Asia. In Organic Matter and Rice. pp. 229–234. International Rice Research Institute, Los Banos, Philippines.Google Scholar
  196. Watanabe, I . 1987. In Azolla Utilization. pp. 197–205. International Rice Research Institute, Los Banos, PhilippinesGoogle Scholar
  197. Watanabe, I., and C.C. Liu, 1990. Improvement of nitrogen-fixing systems and their integration into sustainable rice farming. Trans. 14th Int. Congr. Soil Sci. Commission. III. 134–135Google Scholar
  198. Watanabe, I., W. Ventura., G.B. Mascarina, and D.L. Eskew. 1989. Fate of Azolla Spp. and urea N applied to wetland rice (Oryza sativaL.). Biol. Fertil Soils 8:102–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. Weeraratna, C.S . 1979. Pattern of N release during decomposition of some green manures in a tropical alluvial soil. Plant Soil 53:287–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. Wen Qi-xiao, and Yu Tian-ren. 1988. Effect of green manure on physio-chemical properties of irrigated rice soils. In Green Manure in Rice Farming. pp. 275–288. International Rice Research Institute, Los Banos, Philippines.Google Scholar
  201. Westcott, M.P., and D.S. Mikkelson, 1985. Comparative effects of an organic and inorganic nitrogen source in flooded soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 49:1470–1475.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. Westcott, M.P., and D.S. Mikkelson, 1987. Comparison of organic and inorganic nitrogen sources for rice. Agron. J. 79:937–943.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. White, J.L, M. Fried, and A.J. Ohlrogge. 1947. A study of the utilization of phosphorus in green manure crops by the succeeding crops using radiactive phosphorus. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 12:174–175.Google Scholar
  204. Williams, S.T., and T.R.G. Gray. 1974. Decomposition of the litter on the soil surface. In C.H. Dickinson and G.J.F. Pugh (eds.). Biology of Plant Litter Decomposition. pp. 611–632. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  205. Williams, W.A., D.S. Mikkelsen, K.E. Mueller, and J.E. Ruckman. 1968. Nitrogen immobilization by rice straw incorporated in lowland rice production. Plant Soil 28:49–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. Wilson, D.O., and W.L. Hargrove. 1986. Release of nitrogen from crimson clover residue under two tillage systems. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 50:1251–1254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. Wu Mei-ling, and Chen Jia-fang. 1981. A primary study on the specific adsorption of copper ion of paddy soil in southern Jiangsu. Acta Pedol. Sin. 18:234–243.Google Scholar
  208. Yadav, R.L, and Singh, K. 1986. Long term experiments with sugarcane under intensive cropping system and variation in soil fertility. Indian J. Agron. 31:322–325.Google Scholar
  209. Yadvinder-Singh, Bijay-Singh, M.S. Maskina, and O.P. Meelu. 1988. Effect of organic manures, crop residues and green manure(Sesbania aculeata)on nitrogen and phosphorus transformations in a sandy loam soil at field capacity and waterlogged conditions. Biol. Fertil. Soils 6:183–187Google Scholar
  210. Yadvinder-Singh, C.S. Khind, and Bijay-Singh. 1991. Efficient management of leguminous green manures in wetland rice. Adv. Agron. 45:135–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. Yadvinder-Singh, and E.G. Beauchamp. 1986. Nitrogen mineralization and nitrifier activity in limed and urea treated soils. Commun. Soil Sci. Plant Analysis 7:1369–1381CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. Yu, Tian-ren. 1981. Oxidation-reduction properties of paddy soils. In Proceedings of Symposium on Paddy Soils, pp. 95–106. Institute of Soil Science, Academia Sinica, Science Press, Beijing; Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York.Google Scholar
  213. Yu, Tian-ren . 1985. Physical Chemistry of Paddy Soils. Science Press, Beijing; Springer-Verlag, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  214. Zhu Zhao-liang, Chong-qun Liu, and Bai-fan Jiang. 1984. Mineralization of organic nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur in some paddy soils of China. In Organic Matter and Rice. pp. 259–272. International Rice Research Institute, Los Banos, Philippines.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York, Inc. 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yandvinder-Singh
  • Bijay-Singh
  • C. S. Khind

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations