Self Change pp 63-83 | Cite as

Opting to Change: Students’ Informal Self-change Endeavors

  • Yechiel Klar
  • Arie Nadler
  • Thomas E. Malloy

Abstract

Trying to self improve and self change are highly appreciated personal endeavors in current western culture (Rieff, 1966; Starker, 1988; Wilson, 1976). A variety of formal enterprises, flourishing in past decades, reflect the need for self change. These include psychotherapies (Beit-Hallahmi, 1987; Zilbergeld, 1983), encounter, self-help, and awareness training groups (Back, 1972; Finkelstein, Wenegrat & Yalom, 1982; Gottlieb, 1988; Klar et al., 1990), and dieting or physical fitness programs (Haber, 1984).

Keywords

Depression Assure Beach Smoke Peri 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abramson, L. Y., Seligman, M. E. P. & Teasdale, D. L. (1978). Learned helplessness in humans: Critique and reformulation. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 87, 49–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ajzen, I. (1985). From intention to actions: Atheory of planned behavior. In J. Kuhl & J. Beckmann (Eds.). Action control: From cognition to, behavicr. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
  3. Ajzen, I. & Fishbein, M. (1980). Understanding attitudes and predicting social behavicr. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  4. Atkinson, J. W. (1957). Motivational determinants of risk-taking behavior. Psychological Review, 64, 359–372.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Atkinson, J. W. & Birch, D. (1970). The dynamics of action. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  6. Back, K. W. (1972). Beyond words: The story of sensitivity training and of the encounter movement. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  7. Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundation of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  8. Bandura, A. (1988). Self-regulation of motivation and action through internal standards of the goal system. In L. A. Pervin (Ed.). Goal concepts in personality and social psychology(pp. 127–167 ). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  9. Beach, B. H. & Beach, L. R. (1982). Expectancy-based decision schemes: Sidesteps toward applications. In N. T. Feather (Ed.). Expectations and actions: Expectancy-value models in psychology(pp. 207–237 ). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  10. Beit-Hallahmi, B. (1987). The psychotherapy subculture: Practice and ideology. Social Science Information, 26, 475–492.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Brehm, J. W, Wright, R. A., Solomon, S., Silka, L. & Greenberg, J. (1983). Perceived difficulty, energization and the magnitude of goal valence. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 19, 21–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cantor, N. & Langston, C. A. (1989). Ups and downs of life tasks in a life transition. In L. A. Pervin (Ed.), Goal concepts in personality and social psychology. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  13. Cohen, S., Lichtenstein, E., Prochaska, J. O., Rossi, J. S., Gritz, E. R., Carr, C. R., Orleans, C. T., Schonebach, V. J., Biener, L., Abrams, D., DiClemente, C., Curry, S., Marlatt, G. E., Cummmings, K. M., Emont, S. L., Giovino, G. & Ossip-Klein, D. (1989). Debunking myths about self-quitting: Evidence from ten prospective studies of persons quitting smoking by themselves. American Psychologist, 44, 1355–1365.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cowen, E. L. (1982). Help is where you find it: Four informal helping groups. American Psychologist, 37, 385–395.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Doerfler, L. A. & Richards, C. S. (1981). Self-initiated attempts to cope with depression. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 5, 367–371.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Duncan, O. D. (1975). Introduction to structural equation models. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  17. Dweck, C. S., & Legget, E. L. (1988). A social-cognitive approach to motivation and personality. Psychological Review, 95, 256–273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Feather, N. T., (Ed.) (1982). Expectations and actions: Expectancy-value models in psychology. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  19. Fibel, B. & Hale, W. D. (1978). The Generalized Expectancy for Success Scale—A New Measure. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 46, 924–931.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Finkelstein, P., Wenegrat, B. & Yalom, I. (1982). Large group awareness training. Annual Review of Psychology, 33, 515–539.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Fisher, J. D., Silver R. C., Chinsky, J. M., Goff, B. & Klar, Y. (1990). Evaluating a large group awareness training: A longitudinal study of psychosocial effects. New York: Springer-Verlag.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Fisher, J. D., Goff, B., Nadler, A. & Chinsky, J. M. (1988). Social psychological differences in help-seeking and support from peers. In B. M. Gottlieb (Ed.), Marshaling social support: Formats, processes and effects (pp. 267–304). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  23. Frank, J. D. (1961). Persuasion and healing. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  24. Gottlieb, B. M. (Ed.) (1988). Marshalling social support: Formats, processes, and effects. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  25. Haber, S. (1984). The cult of dieting: Social, cultural phenomena. Paper presented at the 92nd Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association, Toronto, Canada.Google Scholar
  26. Heckhausen, H. (1977). Achievement motivation and its constructs: A cognitive model. Motivation and Emotion, 1, 283–329.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hierich, M. (1975). Change of heart: A test of some widely held theories about religious conversion. American Journal of Sociology, 83, 653–680.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Janoff-Bulman R. & Brickman, P. (1982). Expectation and what people learn from failure. In N. T. Feather (Ed.), Expectations and actions: Expectancy-value models in psychology(pp. 207–237 ). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  29. Joreskog, K. G. & Sorbom D. (1986). Analysis of linear structural relationships by maximum likelihood, instrumental variables, and least squares methods. Mooresville, IN: Scientific Software.Google Scholar
  30. Kuhl, J. (1982). The expectancy-value approach within a theory of social motivation: Elaborations, extensions, critique. In N. T. Feather (Ed.), Expectations and actions: Expectancy-value models in psychology(pp 125–160 ). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  31. Kuhl, J. & Beckmann, J. (Ed.) (1985). Action control: From cognition to behavior. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
  32. Klar, Y. & Cohen, B. (1990). Students’ attempting to self-change. Unpublished manuscript, Tel-Aviv University.Google Scholar
  33. Klar, Y., & Fisher, J. D. (1990). New year’s resolution as a device for self-change. Unpublished manuscript, University of Connecticut.Google Scholar
  34. Klar, Y. Mendola, R., Fisher, J. D., Silver, R., Chinsky, J. M. & Goff, B. (1990). Characteristics of participants in a large awareness training. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 58, 99–108.Google Scholar
  35. Klinger, E. (1975). Consequences of commitment to and disengagement from incentives. Psychological Review, 82, 1–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Lewin, K., Dembo, T., Festinger, L. & Sears, P. S. (1944). Level of aspiration. In J. McV. Hunt (Ed.), Personality and the behavior disorder(Vol 1 ). New York: Ronald.Google Scholar
  37. Marlatt, G. A. & Kaplan, B. E. (1972). Self-initiated behavior: Astudy of new year’s resolution. Psychological Reports, 131, 123–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Mitchell, T. R. (1982). Expectancy-value models in organizational psychology. In N. T. Feather (Ed.), Expectations and actions: Expectancy-value models in psychology(pp. 293–312 ). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  39. Nadler, A., Mayseless, O., Peri, N. & Chemerinski, A. (1985). Effects of opportunity to reciprocate and self-esteem on help seeking behavior. Journal of Personality, 53, 23–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Norcross, J. C., Ratzin, A., C. & Payne, D. (1989). Ringing in the new year: The change processes and reported outcomes of resolutions. Addictive Behaviors, 14, 205–212.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Rieff, P. (1966). The triumph of the therapeutic. New York: Harper.Google Scholar
  42. Rosenberg, M. (1965). Society and the adolescent self-image. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  43. Rotter, J. B., Chance, J. F. & Phares,E. F. (1972). Applications of social learning theory of personality. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.Google Scholar
  44. Schachter, S. (1982). Recidivism and self-cure of smoking and obesity. American Psychologist, 37, 436–444.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Starker, S. (1988). Oracle in the supermarket: Exploring the American obsession with self-help books. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Books.Google Scholar
  46. Staw, B. M. (1976). Knee-deep in the big Muddy: A study of escalating commitment to a chosen course of action. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 16, 27–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Watzlawick, P., Weakland, J. & Fisch, R. (1974). Change: Principles of problem formation and problem resolution. New York: Norton.Google Scholar
  48. Weiner, B. & Kulka, A. (1970). An attributional analysis of achievement motivation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 15, 1–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Wilson, B. (1976). Contemporary transformations of religion. London: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  50. Zirkel, S. & Cantor, N. (1990). Personal construal of life tasks. Those who struggle for independence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 58, 172–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Zilbergeld, B. (1983). The shrinking of America. Boston: Little, Brown.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York, Inc. 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yechiel Klar
  • Arie Nadler
  • Thomas E. Malloy

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations