Skip to main content

Atmospheric Deposition Effects on Foliar Injury and Foliar Leaching in Red Spruce

  • Chapter
Ecology and Decline of Red Spruce in the Eastern United States

Part of the book series: Ecological Studies ((ECOLSTUD,volume 96))

Abstract

The initial contact that atmospheric deposition makes with the forest occurs in the canopies of the trees. Therefore, the foliage is a primary area to look for a response to acidic deposition and ozone. Two major foliar responses are cell and tissue injury and increased leaching of foliar constituents. Pollutants initially affect physiological processes and cell ultrastructure. There are no outward signs of stress, although the tree may be weakened and growth impaired. Ultimately, if the pollutant dosage is high enough, visible symptoms appear that are characteristic of a specific pollutant or mixture of pollutants. Severely injured needles eventually may be shed. Visible foliar symptoms are probably the most widely used bioindicators of a plant’s response to air pollution stress. They appear as discolorations (e.g., chlorosis) and necroses that occur in various sizes, shapes, patterns, and locations on the leaf. Unfortunately, no one pollutant produces a unique set of foliar symptoms that are distinct from those produced by other pollutants or stresses. Foliar injury may affect processes occurring in leaves such as photosynthesis, respiration, transpiration, and foliar leaching.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this chapter

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

eBook
USD 9.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
Softcover Book
USD 109.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Compact, lightweight edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Purchases are for personal use only

Institutional subscriptions

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  • Alenäs I, Skärby L (1988) Throughfall of plant nutrients in relation to crown thinning in a Swedish coniferous forest. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 38:223–237

    Google Scholar 

  • Amthor JS (1986) An estimate of the “cost” of nutrient leaching from forest canopies by rain. New Phytologist 102:359–364

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Astrup M, Bülow-Olsen M (1979) Nutrient cycling in two Danish beech (Fagus sylvatica) forests growing on different soil types. Holarctic Ecology 2:125–129

    Google Scholar 

  • Attiwill PM (1966) The chemical composition of rainwater in relation to cycling of nutrients in mature eucalyptus forest. Plant and Soil 24:390–406

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Barnes JD, Brown KA (1990) The influence of ozone and acid mist on the amount and wettability of the surface waxes in Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.]. New Phytologist 114:531–535

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Barnes JD, Davison AW, Booth TA (1988) Ozone accelerates structural degradation of epicuticular wax on Norway spruce needles. New Phytologist 110:309–318

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Barnes JD, Eamus D, Davison AW, Ro-Paulsen H, Mortensen L (1990) Persistent effects of ozone on needle water loss and wettability in Norway spruce. Environmental Pollution 63:345–363

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Berg VS (1987) Plant cuticle as a barrier to acid rain penetration. In Hutchinson TC, Meema KM (eds) Effects of Atmospheric Pollutants on Forests, Wetlands and Agricultural Ecosystems, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp 145–154

    Google Scholar 

  • Berlyn GP, Anoruo AO, Johnson AH, Vann DR, Strimbeck GR, Boyce RL, Silver WL (1992) Effects of branch chambers on cuticles of red spruce needles on Whiteface Mountain, NY. Journal of Sustainable Forestry (In press)

    Google Scholar 

  • Binkley D, Kimmins JP, Feller MC (1982) Water chemistry profiles in an early successional and a mid-successional forest in coastal British Columbia Canada. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 12:240–248

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Bosch C, Pfannkuch E, Rehfuess KE, Runkel KH, Schramel P, Senser M (1986) Einfluss einer Düngung mit Magnesium and Calcium, von Ozon und saurem Nebel auf Frosthärte, Ernährungszustand und Biomasseproduktion junger Fichten (Picea abies [L.] Karst.) Forstwissenschaftliches Centralblatt 105:218–229

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bukovac MJ, Ramussen HP, Shull VE (1981) The cuticle: surface structure and function. Scanning Electron Microscopy 3:213–223

    Google Scholar 

  • Carlisle A, Brown AHF, White EJ (1967) The nutrient content of tree stemflow and ground flora litter and leachates in a sessile oak (Quercus petraea) canopy. Journal of Ecology 54:87–98

    Google Scholar 

  • Deans JD, Leith ID, Sheppard LJ, Cape JN, Fowler D, Murry MB, Mason PA (1990) The influence of acid mist on growth, dry matter partitioning, nutrient concentrations and mycorrhizal fruiting bodies in red spruce seedlings. New Phytologist 115:459–464

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Friedland AJ, Hawley GJ, Gregory RA (1988) Red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) foliar chemistry in northern Vermont and New York. Plant and Soil 105:189–193

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Garner JHB, Pagano T, Cowling EB (1989) An evaluation of the role of ozone, acid deposition and other airborne pollutants in the forest of eastern North America. General Technical Report SE-59. Asheville, NC. USDA Forest Service, Southeastern Forest Experiment Station

    Google Scholar 

  • Graustein WC (1980) The effects of forest vegetation on chemical weathering and solute acquisition: A study of the Tesuque Watersheds near Santa Fe, New Mexico. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Geology and Geophysics, Yale University

    Google Scholar 

  • Günthardt-Georg MS, Keller T (1987) Some effects of long-term ozone fumigation on Norway spruce. II. Epicuticular wax and stomata. Trees 1:145–150

    Google Scholar 

  • Hanover JA, Reicosky DA (1971) Surface wax deposits of Picea pungens and other confiers. American Journal of Botany 58:681–687

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Heath RL, Castillo FJ (1988) Membrane disturbances in response to air pollution. In Schulte-Hostede S, Darrall NM, Blank LW, Wellburn AR (eds) Air Pollution and Plant Metabolism, Elsevier, New York, pp 55–75

    Google Scholar 

  • Hepting G (1971) Diseases of forest and shade trees of the United States. USDA Forest Service Agriculture Handbook 386, Washington, DC

    Google Scholar 

  • Holloway PJ (1970) Surface factors affecting the wetting of leaves. Pesticide Science 1:156–163

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Holloway PJ (1982) Structure and histochemistry of plant cuticular membranes: an overview. In Cutler DF, Alvin KL, Price CE (eds) The Plant Cuticle, Academic Press, New York, pp 1–32

    Google Scholar 

  • Horntvedt R (1979) Leaching of chemical substances from tree crowns by artificial acid rain. Contribution FA 33/78, SNSF Project, Ås-NLH, Norway

    Google Scholar 

  • Horntvedt R (1988) The effect of acid precipitation on epiculticular wax in Norway spruce and lodgepole pine. Medd Nor inst skogforsk 40:1–13

    Google Scholar 

  • Jacobson JS, Lassoie JP, Osmeloski J, Yamada K (1989) Changes in foliar elements in red spruce seedlings after exposure to sulfuric and nitric acid mist. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 48:141–159

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Jacobson JS, Bethard T, Heller LI, Lassoie JP (1990a) Response of Picea rubens seedlings to intermittent mist varying in acidity, and in concentration of sulfur- and nitrogen-containing pollutants. Physiologia Plantarum 78:595–601

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Jacobson JS, Heller LI, Yamada KE, Osmeloski JE, Bethard T, Lassoie JP (1990b) Foliar injury and growth response of red spruce to sulfate and nitrate acidic mist. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 20:58–65

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Johnson DW, Richter DD, Lovett GM, Lindberg SE (1985) The effects of atmospheric deposition on potassium, calcium, and magnesium cycling in two deciduous forests. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 15:773–782

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Joslin JD, McDuffie C, Brewer PF (1988) Acidic cloud water and cation loss from red spruce foliage. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 39:355–363

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Jüttner, F (1986) Analyse stofflicher Veränderungen in Laub- und Nadelblättern immissionsgeschädigter Waldbäume. Spezielle Berichte der Kernforschungsanlage Jülich, FRG, 369:313–316

    Google Scholar 

  • Karhu M, Huttunen S (1986) Erosion effects of air pollution on needle surfaces. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 31:417–423

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Kaupenjohann M, Schneider BU, Hartschel R, Zech W, Horn R (1988) Sulfuric acid rain treatment of Picea abies (Karst. L): Effects of solution, throughfall chemistry, and tree nutrition. Zeitschrift für Pflanzenernährung und Bodenkunde 151:123–126

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Khanna, PK, Ulrich B (1981) Changes in the chemistry of throughfall under stands of beech (Fagus sylvatica) and spruce (Picea abies) following the addition of fertilizers. Acta Oecologica-Oecologia Plantarum 2:155–164

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Kimmins JP (1972) Relative contributions of leaching, litterfall and defoliation by Neodiprion sertifer (Hymenoptera) to the removal of cesium-134 from red pine. Oikos 23:226–234

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kolattukudy PE (1980) Biopolyester membranes of plants: cutin and suberin. Science 208:990–1000

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Krause CR, Cannon Jr WN (1992) Epistomatal wax injury to Picea rubens needles grown in elevated levels of ozone and acidified rain. Scanning Electron Microscopy (In press)

    Google Scholar 

  • Krause GHM, Prinz B (1986) Zur Wirkung von Ozon und saurem Nebel auf phänomenologische und physiologische Parameter an Nadel- und Laubgehölzen im kombinierten Begasungsexperiment. Spezielle Berichte der Kernforschungsanlage Jülich, FRG, 369:208–221

    Google Scholar 

  • Kreutzer K, Bittersohl (1986) Stoffauswaschung aus Fichtenkronen (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) durch saure Beregung. Forstwissenschafliches Centralblatt 105:357–363

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lawrey JD (1984) The Biology of Lichenized Fungi, Praeger, New York

    Google Scholar 

  • Leininger T, Winner W (1985) A comparison of rainfall and throughfall chemistry on two forested sites differing markedly in soil fertility. Phytopathology 75:626–627

    Google Scholar 

  • Leith ID, Murray MB, Sheppard LS, Cape JN, Deans JD, Smith RI, Fowler D (1989) Visible foliar injury of red spruce seedlings subjected to simulated acid mist. New Phytologist 113:313–320

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Lovett GM, Lindberg SE, Richter DD, and Johnson DW (1985) The effects of acidic deposition on cation leaching from three deciduous forest canopies. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 15:1055–1060

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Magel EM, Ziegler H (1986) Einfluss von Ozon und saurem Nebel auf die Struktur der stomataren Wachspropfen in den Nadeln von Picea abies (L.) Karst. Forstwissenschaftliches Centralblatt 105:234–238

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mahendrappa MK (1987) Tree species and urea treatment effects on sulfur and metals in throughfall and stemflow of some eastern Canadian forest stands. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 17:1035–1042

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Matzner E, Khanna PK, Meiwas KJ, Ulrich B (1983) Effects of fertilization on the fluxes of chemical elements through different forest ecosystems. Plant and Soil 74:343–358

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • McFarlane JC, Berry WL (1974) Cation penetration through isolated leaf cuticles. Plant Physiology 53:723–727

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Mecklenburg RA, Tukey HB (1964) Influence of foliar leaching on root uptake and translocation of calcium-45 to the stems and foliage of Phaseolus vulgaris. Plant Physiology 39:533–536

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Mengel K, Lutz HF, Breininger MT (1987) Auswaschung von Nährstoffen durch sauren Nebel aus jungen intakten Fichten (Picea abies). Zeitschrift für Pflanzenernährung und Bodenkunde 150:61–68

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Mengel K, Hogrebe AMR, Esch A (1989) Effect of acidic fog on needle surface and water relations of Picea abies. Physiologia Plantarum 75:201–207

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Mengel K, Breininger MT, Lutz HJ (1990) Effect of simulated acidic fog on carbohydrate leaching, CO2 assimilation and development of damage symptoms in young spruce trees (Picea abies L. Karst). Environmental and Experimental Botany 30:165–173

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Meyberg M, Lockhausen J, Kristen U (1988) Ultrastructural changes in mesophyll cells of spruce needles from a declining forest in northern Germany. European Journal of Forest Pathology 18:169–175

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Miller HG (1983) Studies of proton flux in forests and heaths in Scotland. In Ulrich B, Pankrath J (eds) Effects of Accumulation of Air Pollutants in Forest Ecosystems, Reidel, Dordrecht, Holland, pp 183–193

    Google Scholar 

  • Miller HG, Cooper JM, Miller JD (1976) Effect of nitrogen supply on nutrients in litterfall and crown leaching in a stand of Corsican pine. Journal of Applied Ecology 13:233–248

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Mitterhuber M, Pfanz H, Kaiser WM (1989) Leaching and uptake of ions through above-ground Norway spruce tree parts: leaching of cations by acid rain from twigs and single needles. In Schulze ED, Lange OL, Oren R (eds) Forest Decline and Air Pollution, Springer-Verlag, New York, pp 221–225

    Google Scholar 

  • O’Connell AM (1985) Nutrient accessions to the forest floor in Karri (Eucalyptus diversicolor) forests of varying age. Forest Ecology and Management 10:283–296

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ojanpera K, Huttunen S (1989) Epicuticular wax structure of ozone fumigated Norway spruce. Annales des sciences forestieres (Supplement) 46:543–546

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Olson RK, Reiners WA, Lovett GM (1985) Trajectory analysis of forest canopy effects on chemical flux in throughfall. Biogeochemistry 1:361–373

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Parker GG (1983) Throughfall and stemflow in the forest nutrient cycle. Advances in Ecological Research 13:57–133

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Parker GG (1990) Evaluation of dry deposition, pollutant damage, and forest health with throughfall studies. In Lucier AA, Haines SG (eds) Mechanisms of Forest Response to Acidic Deposition, Springer-Verlag, New York, pp 10–61

    Google Scholar 

  • Percy KE, Baker EA (1988) Effects of simulated acid rain on leaf wettability, rain retention and uptake of some inorganic ions. New Phytologist 108:75–82

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Percy KE, Baker EA (1990) Effects of simulated acid rain on epicuticular wax production, morphology, chemical commposition and on cuticular membrane thickness in two clones of Sitka spruce [Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.]. New Phytologist 116:79–87

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Percy KE, Baker EA (1991) Effects of simulated acid rain on needle wettability and rain retention by two Sitka spruce [Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.] clones. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 21:694–697

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Percy KE, Riding RT (1978) The epicuticular waxes of Pinus strobus subjected to air pollutants. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 8:474–477

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Percy KE, Krause CR, Jensen KF (1990) Effects of ozone and acid fog on red spruce needle epicuticular wax ultrastructure. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 20:117–120

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Pfirrmann T, Runkel KH, Schramel P, Eisemann T (1990) Mineral and nutrient supply, content and leaching in Norway spruce exposed for 14 months to ozone and acid mist. Environmental Pollution 64:229–253

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Prinz B, Krause GHM, Stratmann H (1982) Waldschäden in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. LIS-Berichte 28:1–154

    Google Scholar 

  • Rehfuess KE (1987) Perceptions of forest diseases in Central Europe. Forestry 60:1–11

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Reiners WA, Olson RK (1984) Effects of canopy components on throughfall chemistry: an experimental analysis. Oecologia 63:320–330

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Riding RT, Percy KE (1985) Effects of SO2 and other air pollutants on the morphology of epicuticular waxes on needles of Pinus strobus and Pinus banksiana. New Phytologist 99:555–563

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Riederer M (1989) The cuticles of conifers: structure, composition and transport properties. In Schulze E-D, Lange OL, Oren R (eds) Forest Decline and Air Pollution, Springer-Verlag, New York, pp 157–192

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Rinallo C, Raddi P, Gellini R, di Lonardo V (1986) Effects of simulated acid deposition on the surface structure of Norway spruce and silver fir needles. European Journal of Forest Pathology 16:440–446

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Robarge WP, Pye JM, Bruck RI (1989) Foliar elemental composition of spruce-fir in the southern Blue Ridge Province. Plant and Soil 113:39–43

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Roberts TM, Skeffington RA, Blank LW (1989) Causes of type 1 spruce decline in Europe. Forestry 62:179–222

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Schaefer DA, Reiners WA, Olson RK (1988) Factors controlling the chemical alteration of throughfall in a subalpine balsam fir canopy. Environmental and Experimental Botany 28:175–189

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Scherbatskoy T (1989) Ionic interactions between precipitation and leaf cuticles. Annales des sciences forestieres (Supplement) 46:557–560

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Scherbatskoy T, Klein RM (1983) Response of spruce and birch foliage to leaching by acidic mists. Journal of Environmental Quality 12:189–195

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Scherbatskoy T, Tyree MT (1990) Kinetics of exchange of ions between artificial precipitation and maple leaf surfaces. New Phytologist 114:703–712

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Schönherr J (1976) Water permeability of isolated cuticular membranes: the effect of cuticular waxes on diffusion of water. Planta 131:159–164

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Schönherr J (1979) Transcuticular movement of xenabiotics. In Geissbuhler H, Brooks GT, Kearne PC (eds) Advances in Pesticide Science, Pergamon, Oxford, pp 392–400

    Google Scholar 

  • Schulze ED, Lange OL, Oren R (1989) Forest decline and air pollution: A study of spruce (Picea abies) on acid soils. Springer-Verlag, Berlin

    Google Scholar 

  • Seastedt TR, Crossley Jr DA, Hargrove WW (1983) The effects of low level consumption of canopy anthropods on the growth and nutrient dynamics of black locust and red maple trees in the southern Appalachians, USA. Ecology 64:1040–1048

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Skeffington RA, Roberts M (1985) Effect of ozone and acid mist on Scots pine and Norway spruce-an experimental study. In Waldshaden, VAI Berichte 560, pp 747–760

    Google Scholar 

  • Skeffington RA, Roberts TM, Blank LW (1986) Damage symptoms on spruce and pine after exposure to ozone and acid mist. Central Electricity Research Laboratories. TPRD/BY/087/M86

    Google Scholar 

  • Skelly, JM, Davis DD, Merrill W, Cameron EA, Brown HD, Drummond DB, Dochinger LS (1987) Diagnosing injury to eastern forest trees. National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program. Forest Response Program, Vegetation Survey Research Cooperative, University of Pennsylvania, University Park, PA

    Google Scholar 

  • Skiba U, Peirson TJ, Cresser MS (1986) Effects of simulated precipitation acidified with sulfuric and/or nitric acid on throughfall chemistry of Sitka spruce Picea sitchensis and heather Calluna vulgaris. Environmental Pollution (Series B) 11:255–270

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Summers PW, Barrie LA (1986) The spatial and temporal variation of the sulfate to nitrate ratio in precipitation in eastern North America. Water, Air and Soil Pollution 30:275–283

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Tsutsumi T, Yoshimitu N (1984) On the effects of soil fertility on the throughfall chemicals in a forest. Japanese Journal of Ecology 34:321–330

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Tukey HB (1970) The leaching of substances from plants. Annual Review of Plant Physiology 21:305–329

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Tukey Jr HB, Tukey HB, Wittwer SH (1958) Loss of nutrients by foliar leaching as determined by radioisotopes. Proceedings of the American Society of Horticultural Science 71:496–506

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Turunen M, Huttunen S (1990) A review of the response of epicuticular wax of conifer needles to air pollution. Journal of Environmental Quality 19:35–45

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Tyree MT, Scherbatskoy TD, Tabor CA (1990) Leaf cuticles behave as asymmetric membranes: evidence from the measurement of diffusion potentials. Plant Physiology 92:103–109

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Unsworth MH (1984) Evaporation from forest in cloud enhances the effects of acid deposition. Nature 312:262–264

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Vogelmann AF, Rock BN (1988) Anatomy of red spruce needles from forest decline sites in Vermont. Environmental and Experimental Botany 28:19–26

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Weathers KC, Likens GE, Bormann FH, Bicknell SH, Bormann BT, Daube Jr BC, Eaton JS, Galloway JN, Keene WC, Kimball KD, McDowell WH, Siccama TG, Simley D, Tarrant RA (1988) Cloudwater chemistry from ten sites in North America. Environmental Science and Technology 22:1018–1026

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Authors

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

Copyright information

© 1992 Springer-Verlag New York, Inc.

About this chapter

Cite this chapter

Schier, G.A., Jensen, K.F. (1992). Atmospheric Deposition Effects on Foliar Injury and Foliar Leaching in Red Spruce. In: Eagar, C., Adams, M.B. (eds) Ecology and Decline of Red Spruce in the Eastern United States. Ecological Studies, vol 96. Springer, New York, NY. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4612-2906-3_7

Download citation

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4612-2906-3_7

  • Publisher Name: Springer, New York, NY

  • Print ISBN: 978-1-4612-7714-9

  • Online ISBN: 978-1-4612-2906-3

  • eBook Packages: Springer Book Archive

Publish with us

Policies and ethics