Synthesis and Conclusions from Epidemiological and Mechanistic Studies of Red Spruce Decline
The large numbers of dead and declining red spruce at high-elevation sites throughout the Adirondacks and northern Appalachians and of Fraser fir in the southern Appalachians in the late 1970s and early 1980s raised public and scientific concern about the future of mountain spruce-fir forests. Coincident with these observations were reports from Germany of regional-scale forest decline that was attributed to gaseous air pollutants and acidic deposition. Public concern was further stimulated because these high-elevation spruce-fir forests receive millions of visitors annually due to their recreational and esthetic appeal. These concerns over forest health carried important implications for policymakers responsible for establishing air quality standards designed to safeguard natural resources.
KeywordsRadial Growth Cold Tolerance Cloud Water Growth Decline Basal Area Growth
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