Spruce-Fir Forests of Eastern North America

  • Peter S. White
  • Charles V. Cogbill
Part of the Ecological Studies book series (ECOLSTUD, volume 96)

Abstract

One of the most striking ecological features of the mountains of the eastern United States and adjacent Canada is the high elevation forest dominated by the needle-leaved, evergreen genera Picea (spruce) and Abies (fir). Spruce-fir forests are found on the upper slopes of the Adirondack and Appalachian Mountains, over an area that extends from western North Carolina, USA (ca. 35°N), to central Quebec and New Brunswick, Canada (ca. 49°N). In addition to these montane (Cogbill and White 1991, Siccama 1974, Harries 1966) or subalpine (MacMahon and Andersen 1982) forests, similar spruce-fir forests dominate some low elevation sites, particularly in the northern United States and adjacent Canada. Although eastern spruce-fir forests vary considerably across elevations, latitudes, and sites, red spruce (Picea rubens) is a dominant tree throughout. In fact, red spruce is restricted to the Appalachians, Adirondacks, and adjacent areas and, thus, serves as a unifying element of these varying forests.

Keywords

Biomass Migration Germinate Galium Eter 

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© Springer-Verlag New York, Inc. 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Peter S. White
  • Charles V. Cogbill

There are no affiliations available

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