Anatomy of Cerebral Vessels in Infants and Children

  • Anthony J. Raimondi
Part of the Principles of Pediatric Neurosurgery book series (PRINCPEDIATR)


The form, caliber, distribution, and pairing of arterial and venous structures in the newborn, infant, and child are distinctly different from what one observes in the adult, though the naming of the vessels is identical. Consequently, it is assumed that the reader is conversant with standard neuroradiological nomenclature. Within broad limits one may safely generalize that the younger the child the wider the caliber and the greater the redundancy of intracisternal and intraffisural vessels (such as the internal carotid, sylvian complex, basilar and posterior cerebrals). This may be related to the relatively greater size of the basal cisterns and the fissures. Also, the frontal lobes in the newborn and infant are extremely small. This latter anatomic characteristic is responsible for the central sulcus being closer to the coronal suture.


Internal Carotid Artery Posterior Cerebral Artery Cerebral Vessel Posterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery Sylvian Fissure 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Abbie AA: Blood supply of lateral geniculate body with note on morphology of choroidal arteries. J Anat 67: 491, 1933.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Albertson KW, Doppman JL, Ramsey R: Spinal seizures induced by contrast media; a new method of comparing neurotoxicity of radio-opaque agents, Radiology 107: 349, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Allen WE III, Kier EL, Rothman SLG: The maxillary artery: normal arteriographic anatomy. Am J Roentgenol Radium Ther Nucl Med 118: 517, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Babin ES, Megret M: Variations in the drainage of the basal vein. Neuroradiology 6: 154, 1973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ben-Amor M, Marion C, Heldt N: Normal and pathological radioanatomy of the superior choroid vein. Neuroradiology 3: 16, 1971.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Billewicz O, Ben-Amor M: The posterior ventricular branches of the internal cerebral and basilar vein. Neuroradiology 2: 37, 1971.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Boulos RS, Gilroy J, Meyer JS: Technique of cerebral angiography in children. Am J Roentgenol 101: 121, 1967.Google Scholar
  8. Carrea R: Angiography in children: preliminary report. Am Inst Med Exp 2: 69, 1950.Google Scholar
  9. Carrea R, Schuster G: Observations about retrograde brachial cerebral angiography in children. Acta Neurochir 9: 456, 1961.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Castorina G, Fortuna A, Sollini A: Cerebral angiography in children. Policlinico 66: 1797, 1959.Google Scholar
  11. Desilets DT, Ruttenberg HD, Hoffman RB: Percutaneous catheterization in children. Radiology 87: 119, 1966.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Eckstein A: Angioarchitectonics in young children; method of staining vessels. Z Ges Neurol Psychiatry 154: 298, 1935.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Fisher PA: Angiographic picture of corpus callosum deficiency. Dtsch Z Nervenheilkd 180: 40, 1959.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Fitz CR, Harwood-Nash DC: The Anterior Falx Artery Radiologicum. Punta del Este, 1974.Google Scholar
  15. Fitz CR, Harwood-Nash DC: Early Venous Filling and Neuroradiologicum. Punta del Este, 1974.Google Scholar
  16. Francisco CB, Davidson KC, Youngstrom KA, Schoolman A, Poser CM: Transfemoral cervicocephalic angiography in children. Pediatrics 33:119, 1964.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Harwood-Nash DC: Pediatric neuroradiology. Radiol Clin North Am 10: 313, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Hassler O: Deep cerebral venous system in man; a microangiographic study on its areas of drainage and its anastomoses with the superficial cerebral veins. Neurology 16: 505, 1965.Google Scholar
  19. Horwitz NH, Wener L: Temporary cortical blindness following angiography. J Neurosurg 40: 583, 1974.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Howieson J, Megison LC Jr: Complications of vertebral artery catheterization. Radiology 91: 1109, 1968.Google Scholar
  21. Huber P: Demonstration of impaired autoregulation in tumors and cerebral infarction by angiography. Acta Radiol Diagn 13: 115, 1972.Google Scholar
  22. Jensen HP: Unusual aspects in carotid artery angiography in early childhood hydrocephalus. Radiologie 6: 465, 1966.Google Scholar
  23. Lehmann R: The tolerance of cerebral angiography in children. Radiol. Diagn. 9: 140, 1968.Google Scholar
  24. LeMay M, Gooding CA: The clinical significance of the azygous anterior cerebral artery (ACA). Am J Roentgenol Radium Ther Nucl Med 98: 602, 1966.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. LePage JR: Transfemoral ascending lumbar catheterization of the epidural veins. III. Radiology 98: 602, 1968.Google Scholar
  26. Lie TA: Congenital Anomalies of the Carotid Arteries. Excerpta Medica Foundation, Amsterdam, 1968.Google Scholar
  27. MacRae, DL, Castorina G: Variations in corpus callosum, septum pellucidum and fornix, and their effect on the encephalogram and cerebral angiogram. Acta Radiol Diagn 1: 872, 1963.Google Scholar
  28. Maki Y, Nakada Y, Watanabe O: Cerebral angiograms in children; the diameter of the main branches of the carotid system. Clin Neurol Tokyo Rinsho Sinkeigaku 9: 308, 1969.Google Scholar
  29. Marchese GS: Radiologia poediatrica: patologia cranica. Minerva Med 57: 929, 1966.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Mingrino S, et al.: Agenesis of the septum pellucidum: an angiographic sign. Neurochirurgia (Stuttgart) 7: 1, 1964.Google Scholar
  31. Padget DG: The development of the cranial venous system in man, from the viewpoint to comparative anatomy. Contrib Embryol 32: 212, 1948.Google Scholar
  32. Padget DH: The development of the cranial arteries in the human embryo. Contrib Embryol 32: 205, 1948.Google Scholar
  33. Paraicz E, Szenasy J: Uber die Carotisangiographie im Kindesalter. Acta Neurochir 7: 350, 1959.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Potts DG, Svare GT, Bergeron RT: The developing brain; correlation between radiologic and anatomical findings. Acta Radiol Diagn 9: 430, 1969.Google Scholar
  35. Raimondi AJ, White H: Cerebral angiography in the newborn and infants. I. General principles. Ann Radiol 10: 146, 1967.Google Scholar
  36. Raimondi AJ, Samuelson G, Yarzagaray L: Positive contrast (Conray 60) serial ventriculography in the normal and hydrocephalic infant. Ann Radiol 12: 377, 1969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Sangruchi V, Hitchcock E, Donaldson AA: Post-angiography vertebral arteriovenous fistulae. Br J Surg 59: 627, 1972.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Schelsinger B: The venous drainage of the brain, with special reference to the galenic system. Brain 62: 274, 1939.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Stopford JSB: The functional significance of the arrangement of the cerebral and cerebellar veins. J Anat 64: 257, 1930.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Takahashi M: Percutaneous catheterization in infants and children. In: Gyepes MT (ed.), Angiography in Infants and Children. Grune & Stratton, New York, 1974.Google Scholar
  41. Takaku A., Suzuki J: Cerebral angiography in children and adults with mental retardation. I. Control series. Dev Med Child Neurol 14: 756, 1972.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Taveras JM: Neurorardiology in children. In: Decker K (ed.), Clinical Neuroradiology, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1966, pp 359 – 399.Google Scholar
  43. Torkildsen A, Koppang K: Percutaneous carotid angiography in children. J Bras Neurol 2:xx, 1950.Google Scholar
  44. Vermess M, Stein SC, Ajmone-Marsan C, DiChiro G: Angiography in “idiopathic” focal epilepsy. Am J Roentgenol Radium Ther Nucl Med 115: 120, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Vigouroux R, Boudouresques J, Piganiol G, Vigouroux M: Valeur respective de la penumographie, de l’angiographie et de l’electroencephalographie au course des encephalopathies infantiles. Rev Neurol 90: 662, 1954.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Vitek JJ: Microaneurysms of the carotid artery after “nontraumatic” percutaneous puncture. Radiology 106: 101, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Vlahovitch, B: Insular guidemarks, carotid angiography of infants and children. Neurochirurgia 12: 817, 1966.Google Scholar
  48. Vogel FS, McClenahan JL: Anomalies of major cerebral artyeries associated with congenital malformations of brains. Trans Am Neurol Assoc 77: 132, 1952.Google Scholar
  49. Vogelsang H, Bauer B: Current angiographic methods in cerebral diagnosis in infancy and childhood: report of 170 brachial angiographies. Fortschr Geb Roentgenstr 108: 329, 1968.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Vogelsang H: Cerebral angiography through the brachial artery in infancy and childhood. Radiologie 6: 461, 1966.Google Scholar
  51. Wallace S, Anderson JH, Gianturco C: Thrombus formation during direct puncture cerebral angiography. Am J Roentgenol Radium Ther Nucl Med 119: 613, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Wilson GH: Pediatric neuroarteriography. In: Gyepes MT (ed.), Angiography in infants and Children. Grune & Stratton, New York, 1974.Google Scholar
  53. Wilson GH : Technique in cerebral angiography in child. Wien Med Wochenschr 107:xx, 1957Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anthony J. Raimondi

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations