GnRH Neurons in an Interpretation of Kallmann’s Syndrome
Since virtually all neurons in the mammalian brain are born adjacent to the linings of the cerebral ventricles and migrate a small distance to their final functional positions, it was surprising that the neurons that control vertebrate reproduction, those expressing gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH and LHRH), do not follow that rule. Rapidly gathering information about the origin and migration of GnRH neurons has recently been reviewed (1), and this chapter briefly sets some of those facts against a background of ideas about Kallmann’s syndrome and about gene transfer into brain.
KeywordsMigration Methotrexate Folic Acid Neurol Prolactin
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 4.Schwanzel-Fukuda M, et al. Disruption of LHRH neuronal migration by anti-NCAM antibody on olfactory placode. J Comp Neurol (submitted).Google Scholar
- 7.Silverman A. The gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neuronal systems: immunocytochemistry. In: Knobil E, Neill J, eds. The physiology of reproduction. New York: Raven Press, 1988:1283–304.Google Scholar
- 8.Weiner RI, Findell PR, Kordon C. Role of classic and peptide neuromediators in the neuroendocrine regulation of LH and prolactin. In: Knobil E, Neill J, eds. The physiology of reproduction. New York: Raven Press, 1988:1235–81.Google Scholar
- 11.Legouis R, Ayer-LeLievre C, Leibovici M, Lapointe F, Petit C. Neuronal expression of the Kallmann gene during chicken development. PNAS. (submitted).Google Scholar
- 12.Rugarli EI, Lutz B, Kuratani C, Borsani G, Ballabio A, Eichele G. Expression pattern of the Kallmann’s syndrome gene in the olfactory system indicates a role in neural target recognition mechanisms (submitted).Google Scholar
- 13.del Castillo I, Cohen-Salmon M, Blanchard S, Lutfalla G, Petit C. Structure of the gene responsible for the X-linked Kallmann syndrome and its homologous pseudogene on the Y chromosome. Nature (in press).Google Scholar
- 15.Schwanzel-Fukuda M, Pfaff DW. Neuron specific enolase (NSE)-immunoreactivity is present in cells on the migration route of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) neurons originating from the olfactory placode in mice. Soc Neurosci Abstr 1992;18:233.Google Scholar
- 16.Schwanzel-Fukuda M, et al. Disruption of LHRH neuronal migration by anti-NCAM antibody on olfactory placode. J Comp Neurol (submitted).Google Scholar
- 17.Kaplitt MG, Rabkin SD, Pfaff DW. Molecular alterations in nerve cells: direct manipulation and physiological mediation. Curr Top Neuroendocrinol 1993;11:169–91.Google Scholar
- 19.Kaplitt MG, Rabkin S, Pfaff DW. In vivo promoter analysis in brain using a herpes simplex vector. PNAS (submitted).Google Scholar