• Karl-Paul Witzel
  • Jutta Demuth
  • Christian Schütt
Part of the Ecological Studies book series (ECOLSTUD, volume 105)


Bacteriophages are viruses that infect bacteria and cyanobacteria, their host cells. Since their discovery at the beginning of this century (Twort 1915, d’Hérelle 1914), studies on the interaction between phage and host cells have significantly contributed to our understanding of modern molecular biology. Phages have been isolated for virtually all of the known bacterial genera and from all habitats where bacteria can exist (Ackermann and DuBow 1987). Some of them have been studied in great detail. However, little is known about those phages that infect native bacterial populations, especially in freshwater habitats.


Lactic Acid Bacterium Aquatic Habitat Host Strain Bacterial Host Host Bacterium 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Ackermann H-W, DuBow MS (1987) Viruses of Prokaryotes, vol I. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FloridaGoogle Scholar
  2. Adams MH (1959) Bacteriophages. Interscience, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  3. Ahrens R (1971) Untersuchungen zur Verbreitung von Phagen der Gattung Agrobacterium in der Ostsee. Kiel Meeresforsch 27:102–112Google Scholar
  4. Anderson ES (1966) Possible importance of transfer factors in bacterial evolution. Nature 209:637–638PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Beachem IR (1987) Silent genes in procaryotes. FEMS Microbiol Rev 46:409–417CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bergh O, Børsheim KY, Bratbak G, Heldal M (1989) High abundance of viruses found in aquatic environments. Nature 340:467–468PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bratbak G, Heldal M, Norland S, Thingstad TF (1990) Viruses as partners in spring bloom microbial trophodynamics. Appl Environ Microbiol 56:1400–1405PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Cochlan WP, Wikner J, Steward GF, Smith DC, Azam F (1993) Spatial distribution of viruses, bacteria and chlorophyll a in neritic, oceanic and estuarine environments. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 92:77–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Collins VG, Willoughby LG (1962) The distribution of bacteria and fungal spores in Blelham Tarn with particular reference to an experimental overturn. Arch Mikrobiol 43:294–307PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cottrell MT, Suttle CA (1991) Wide-spread occurrence and clonal variation in viruses which cause lysis of a cosmopolitan, eukaryotic marine phytoplankter, Micromonas pusilla. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 78:1–9 Davidson BE, Powell IB, Hillier AJ (1990) Temperate bacteriophages and lysogeny in lactic acid bacteria. FEMS Microbiol Rev 87:79–90Google Scholar
  11. Demuth J, Neve H, Witzel K-P (1993) Morphological diversity of bacteriophage populations in lake Plußsee, studied by direct electron microscopy. Appl Environ Microbiol 59: 3378–3384PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. González JM, Suttle CA (1993) Grazing by marine nanoflagellates on viruses and virus-sized particles: Ingestion and digestion. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 94:1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Haas MJ, Fleming D (1986) Use of biotinylated DNA probes in colony hybridization. Nucleic Acid Res 14:3976PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hara S, Terauchi K, Koike I (1991) Abundance of viruses in marine waters: Assessment by epifluorescence and transmission electron microscopy. Appl Environ Microbiol 57:2731–2734PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Heldal M, Bratbak G (1991) Production and decay of viruses in aquatic environments. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 72:205–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. D’Hérelle F (1917) Sur un microbe invisible antagoniste des bacilles dysentériques. CR Acad Sci Paris 165:373–375Google Scholar
  17. Hill C, Miller LA, Klaenhammer TR (1990) Cloning, expression, and sequence determination of a bacteriophage fragment encoding bacteriophage resistance in Lactococcus lactis. J Bacterid 172:6419–6426Google Scholar
  18. Hill C, Miller LA, Klaenhammer TR (1991) In vivo genetic exchange of a functional domain from a type IIA methylase between lactococcal plasmid pTR2030 and a virulent bacteriophage. J Bacteriol 173:4363–4370PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Logan KB, Rees GE, Seeley ND, Primrose SB (1980) Rapid concentration of bacteriophages from large volumes of freshwater: Evaluation of positively charged, microporous filters. J Virol Methods 1:87–97PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Moebus K (1991) Preliminary observations on the concentration of marine bacteriophages in the water around Helgoland. Helgoländer Meeresunters 45:411–422CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Moebus K (1992) Further investigations on the concentration of marine bacteriophages in the water around Helgoland, with reference to the phage-host system encountered. Helgoländer Meeresunters 46:275–292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Ogunseitan O A, Sayler GS, Miller RV (1990) Dynamic interactions of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and bacteriophages in lake water. Microb Ecol 19:171–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Padan E, Shilo M (1973) Cyanophages—Viruses attacking blue-green algae. Bacteriol Rev 37:343–370PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Primrose SB, Day M (1977) Rapid concentration of bacteriophages from aquatic habitats. J Appl Bacteriol 42:417–421PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Proctor LM, Fuhrman JA (1990) Viral mortality of marine bacteria and cyanobacteria. Nature 343:60–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Proctor LM, Fuhrman JA (1992) Mortality of marine bacteria in response to enrichments of the virus size fraction from seawater. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 87:283–293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Purdy RN, Dancer BN, Day MJ, Stickler DJ (1984) A novel technique for the enumeration of bacteriophage from water. FEMS Microbiol Lett 21:89–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Romashko AM, Bylinskii AF (1992) Analysis of phage resistance of pseudomonads. Microbiology 61:337–342Google Scholar
  29. Reanney DC (1977) Gene transfer as a mechanism of microbial evolution. Bioscience 27:340–344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Sambrook J, Fritsch EF, Maniatis T (1989) Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  31. Schütt C (1990) Plasmids and their role in natural aquatic bacterial communities. In Overbeck J, Chróst RJ (eds) Aquatic Microbial Ecology: Biochemical and Molecular Approaches. Springer-Verlag, New York, pp 160–183Google Scholar
  32. Schütt C (1991) Ecogenetics: A new concept of aquatic microbial ecology at genetical level. Verh Int Ver Limnol 24:2593–2597Google Scholar
  33. Seeley ND, Hallard G, Primrose SB (1979) A portable device for concentrating bacteriophages from large volumes of freshwater. J Appl Bacteriol 47:145–152PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Sherr EB (1989) And now, small is plentiful. Nature 340:429PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Stal LJ, Bock E, Bower EJ, et al. (1989) Cellular physiology and interactions of biofilms. In Characklis WG, Wilderer PA (eds) Structure and Function of Biofilms. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, pp 269–289Google Scholar
  36. Stewart GJ, Carlsson CA (1986) The biology of natural transformation. Annu Rev Microbiol 40:211–235PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Suttle CA, Chan AM (1993) Marine cyanophages infecting oceanic and coastal strains of Synechococcus: Abundance, morphology, cross-infectivity and growth characteristics. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 92:99–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Suttle CA, Chan AM, Cottrell MT (1990) Infection of phytoplankton by viruses and reduction of primary productivity. Nature 347:467–469CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Suttle CA, Chan AM, Cottrell MT (1991) Use of ultrafiltration to isolate viruses from seawater which are pathogens of marine phytoplankton. Appl Environ Microbiol 57:721–726PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Torrella F, Morita RY (1979) Evidence by electron micrographs for a high incidence of bacteriophage particles in the waters of Yaquina Bay, Oregon: Ecological and taxonomical implications. Appl Environ Microbiol 37:774–778PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Twort FW (1915) An investigation on the nature of ultra-microscopic viruses. Lancet 2:1241–1243 Weisse T, Müller H, Pinto-Coelho R, Schweizer A, Springmann D, Baldringer G (1990) Response of the microbial loop to the phytoplankton spring bloom in a large prealpine lake. Limnol Oceanogr 35:781–794Google Scholar
  42. Wiggins BA, Alexander M (1985) Minimum bacterial density for bacteriophage replication: Implications for significance of bacteriophages in natural ecosystems. Appl Environ Microbiol 49:19–23PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Witzel K-P, Overbeck J, Moaledj K (1982) Microbial communities in lake Plußsee—an analysis with numerical taxonomy of isolates. Arch Hydrobiol 94:38–52Google Scholar
  44. Wommack KE, Hill RT, Kessel M, Russek-Cohen E, Colwell RR (1992) Distribution of viruses in the Chesapeake Bay. Appl Environ Microbiol 58:2965–2970PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York, Inc. 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Karl-Paul Witzel
  • Jutta Demuth
  • Christian Schütt

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations