Advertisement

Selenium Status and Glutathione Metabolism

  • Kristina E. Hill

Abstract

Selenium, vitamin E, and sulfur amino acids have long been considered to serve as antioxidants that complement one another. Selenium is an essential component of intracellular and extracellular glutathione peroxidases. (See chapters 3 and 4.) Vitamin E is a membrane-associated molecule that scavenges free radicals, preventing damage to membrane lipids (Witting, 1980). Glutathione (GSH) reacts with free radicals nonenzymatically and is also a substrate for many enzyme systems. The central role of glutathione in oxidant defense has recently been strengthened by discoveries showing that it regenerates vitamin E and ascorbic acid from free radical metabolites of them (Meister, 1992). Deficiencies of selenium, vitamin E, and/or GSH often result in increased sensitivity to oxidant stress. The relationships of glutathione with the antioxidant nutrients are important. Figure 8.1 depicts the formation and fate of cellular GSH. Elements of the scheme that are affected by selenium deficiency are highlighted. The relationship between selenium and glutathione will be discussed in this chapter.

Keywords

Glutathione Peroxidase Glutathione Peroxidase Activity Selenium Deficiency Glutathione Metabolism Cumene Hydroperoxide 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Arthur, JR, Morrice, PC, Nicol, F, Beddows, SE, Boyd, R, Hayes, JD, Beckett, GJ. The effects of selenium and copper deficiencies on glutathione S-transferase and glutathione peroxidase in rat liver. Biochem J 248:539 – 544; 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Burk, RF, Lane, JM. Modification of chemical toxicity by selenium deficiency. Fund Applied Toxicol 3:218 – 221; 1983.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Burk, RF, Lawrence, RA, Lane, JM. Liver necrosis and lipid peroxidation in the rat as the result of paraquat and diquat administration:Effect of selenium deficiency. J Clin Invest 65:1024 – 1031; 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Burk, RF, Nishiki, K, Lawrence, RA, Chance, B. Peroxide removal by selenium-dependent and selenium-independent glutathione peroxidases in hemoglobin-free perfused rat liver. J Biol Chem 253:43—46; 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Hill, KE, Burk, RF. Effect of selenium deficiency and vitamin E deficiency on glutathione metabolism in isolated rat hepatocytes. J Biol Chem 257:10668 - 10672; 1982.Google Scholar
  6. Hill, KE, Burk, RF. Toxicity studies in isolated hepatocytes from selenium- deficient rats and vitamin E-deficient rats. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 72:32 - 39; 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Hill, KE, Burk, RF. Effect of selenium deficiency on the disposition of plasma glutathione. Arch Biochem Biophys 240:166 - 171; 1985.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Hill, KE, Burk, RF. Glutathione metabolism as affected by selenium deficiency. In:Wendel, A, ed. Selenium in Biology and Medicine. Berlin:Springer-Verlag; 1989, pp. 96 - 100.Google Scholar
  9. Hill, KE, Burk, RF, Lane, JM. Effect of selenium depletion and repletion on plasma glutathione and glutathione-dependent enzymes in the rat. J Nutr 117:99 - 104; 1987a.Google Scholar
  10. Hill, KE, Taylor, MA, Burk, RF. Influence of selenium deficiency on glutathione disulfide metabolism in isolated perfused rat heart. Biochim Biophys Acta 923:431 - 435; 1987b.Google Scholar
  11. Konz, KH, Haap, M, Hill, KE, Burk, RF, Walsh, RA. Diastolic dysfunction of perfused rat hearts induced by hydrogen peroxide. Protective effect of selenium. J Mol Cell Cardiol 21:789 - 795; 1989.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Lawrence, RA, Parkhill, LK, Burk, RF. Hepatic cytosolic non selenium- dependent glutathione peroxidase activity:its nature and the effect of selenium deficiency. J Nutr 108:981 - 987; 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Mclntyre, TM, Curthoys, NP. The interorgan metabolism of glutathione. Int J Biochem 12:545 - 551; 1980.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Meister, A. On the antioxidant effects of ascorbic acid and glutathione. Biochem Pharmacol 44:1905 - 1915; 1992.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Piao, JH, Hill, KE, Hunt, RW, Burk, RF. Effect of selenium deficiency on tissue taurine concentration and urinary taurine excretion in the rat. J Nutr Biochem 1:427 - 432; 1990.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Reiter, R, Wendel, A. Selenium and drug metabolism—II. Independence of glutathione peroxidase and reversibility of hepatic enzyme modulations in deficient mice. Biochem Pharmacol 33:1923 - 1928; 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Rotruck, JT, Pope, AL, Ganther, HE, Swanson, AB, Hafeman, D, Hoekstra, WG. Selenium:biochemical role as a component of glutathione per¬oxidase. Science 179:588 - 590; 1973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Tateishi, N, Higashi, T, Naruse, A, Nakashima, K, Shiozaki, H, Sakamoto, Y. Rat liver glutathione:possible role as a reservoir of cysteine. J Nutr 107:51 - 60; 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Wendel, A, Pilz, W, Ladenstein, R, Sawatzki, G, Weser, U. Substrate- induced redox change of selenium in glutathione peroxidase studied by X- ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Biochim Biophys Acta 377:211—215; 1975.Google Scholar
  20. Witting, LA. Vitamin E and lipid antioxidants in free-redical-initiated reactions. In:Pryor, WA, ed. Free Radicals in Biology. New York:Academic Press; 1980, pp. 295 - 319.Google Scholar
  21. Xia, Y, Hill, KE, Burk, RF. Effect of selenium deficiency on hydroperoxide- induced glutathione release from the isolated perfused rat heart. J Nutr 115:733 - 742; 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Yang, JG, Hill, KE, Burk, RF. Dietary selenium intake controls rat plasma selenoprotein P concentration. J Nutr 119:1010 - 1012; 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kristina E. Hill

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations