Advertisement

Novel Strategies in Selenium Cancer Chemoprevention Research

  • Clement Ip
  • Howard E. Ganther

Abstract

Experimental studies with rodents indicate that selenium supplementation at levels above the dietary requirement is capable of protecting against tumorigenesis induced by chemical carcinogens or viruses (1—4). With few exceptions, the selenium compounds that have been examined are those readily available from commercial sources. Over 90% of such studies reported in the literature have used either selenite or selenomethionine as the test reagent. We have compiled the results of a large number of experiments involving supplementation with either selenite or selenomethionine and compared their chemopreventive efficacies using the dimethylbenz [a] anthracene (DMBA)-induced mammary tumor model in rats. On a selenium weight basis and over a graded dose range (from 1 to 5 ppm Se in the diet), our data showed that selenomethionine was not as active as selenite in mammary cancer inhibition (5). Tissue selenium concentrations in blood, liver, kidney, and skeletal muscle, on the other hand, were always higher in rats given selenomethionine compared with those given selenite. Thus the greater total body burden of selenium in selenomethionine-treated rats did not appear to confer a better protection against tumorigenesis. Based on this observation, the question that came to mind was whether selenium metabolism is necessary for its anticarcinogenic activity.

Keywords

Sodium Selenite Selenium Compound Cancer Chemoprevention Anticarcinogenic Activity Mammary Tumor Model 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Milner, JA. Effect of selenium on virally induced and transplantable tumor models. Fed Proc 44:2568 – 2572; 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ip, C. The chemopreventive role of selenium in carcinogenesis. J Am Coll Toxicol 5:7 – 20; 1986.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ip, C, Medina, D. Current concept of selenium and mammary tumorigenesis. In:Medina, D, Kidwell, W, Heppner, G, Anderson, EP, eds. Cellular and Molecular Biology of Breast Cancer. New York:Plenum Press; 1987, pp 479 – 494.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    El-Bayoumy, K. The role of selenium in cancer prevention. In:DeVita, VT, Hellman, S, Rosenberg, SS, eds. Cancer Principles and Practice of Oncology, 4th ed. Philadelphia:J B Lippincott; 1991, pp 1 – 15.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ip, C, Hayes, C. Tissue selenium levels in selenium-supplemented rats and their relevance in mammary cancer protection. Carcinogenesis 10:921 – 925; 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ip, C. Differential effect of dietary methionine on the biopotency of selenomethionine and selenite in cancer chemoprevention. J Natl Cancer Inst 80:258 - 262; 1988.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ip, C, Ganther, H. Efficacy of trimethylselenonium versus selenite in cancer chemoprevention and its modulation by arsenite. Carcinogenesis 9:1481 - 1484; 1988.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hsieh, HS, Ganther, HE. Biosynthesis of dimethyl selenide from sodium selenite in rat liver and kidney cell-free systems. Biochim Biophys Acta 497:205 - 217; 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ip, C. Prophylaxis of mammary neoplasia by selenium supplementation in the initiation and promotion phases of chemical carcinogenesis. Cancer Res 41:4386 - 4390; 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ganther, HE. Pathways of selenium metabolism including respiratory excretory products. J Am Coll Toxicol 5:1—5; 1986.Google Scholar
  11. 10.
    Ganther, HE. Pathways of selenium metabolism including respiratory excretory products. J Am Coll Toxicol 5:1—5; 1986.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Foster, SJ, Kraus, RJ, Ganther, HE. Formation of dimethylselenide and trimethylselenonium from selenobetaine in the rat. Arch Biochem Biophys 247:12 - 19; 1986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Foster, SJ, Kraus, RJ, Ganther, HE. The metabolism of selenomethionine, Se-methylselenocysteine, their selenonium derivatives, and trimethylselenonium in the rat. Arch Biochem Biophys 251:77 - 86; 1986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ip, C, Ganther, HE. Activity of methylated forms of selenium in cancer prevention. Cancer Res 50:1206 - 1211; 1990.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ip, C, Hayes, C, Budnick, RM, Ganther, HE. Chemical form of selenium, critical metabolites, and cancer prevention. Cancer Res 51:595 - 600; 1991.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ip, C, Ganther, HE. Biological activities of trimethylselenonium as influenced by arsenite. J Inorg Biochem 46:215 - 222; 1992.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Conaway, CC, Upadhyaya, P, Meschter, CL, Kurtzke, C, Marcus, LA, El-Bayoumy, K. Subchronic toxicity of benzyl selenocyanate and 1,4- phenylenebis(methylene)selenocyanate in F344 rats. Fund Appl Toxicol 19:563 - 574; 1992.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. El-Bayoumy, K. The effects of organoselenium compounds on induction of mouse forestomach tumors by benzo(a)pyrene. Cancer Res 45:3631- 3635; 1985.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Reddy, BS, Sugie, S, Maruyama, H, El-Bayoumy, K, Marra, P. Chemoprevention of colon carcinogenesis by dietary organoselenium, benzylselenocyanate, in F344 rats. Cancer Res 47:5901–5904; 1987.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Nayini, J, El-Bayoumy, K, Sugie, S, Cohen, LA, Reddy, BS. Chemo-prevention of experimental mammary carcinogenesis by the synthetic organoselenium compound, benzylselenocyanate, in rats. Carcinogenesis 10:509 – 512; 1989.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    El-Bayoumy, K, Chae, Y-H, Upadhyaya, P, Meschter, C, Cohen, LA, Reddy, BS. Inhibition of 7,12—dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced tumors and DNA adduct formation in the mammary glands of female Sprague-Dawley rats by the synthetic organoselenium compound, 1,4- phenylenebis(methylene)-selenocyanate. Cancer Res 52:2402–2407; 1992.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Ip, C, El-Bayoumy, K, Upadhyaya, P, Vadhanavikit, S, Ganther, H. Formulation of a method to index the efficacy of inorganic and organic selenocyanate derivatives in mammary cancer prevention. Proc Amer Assoc Cancer Res 34:557; 1993.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Wargovieh, MJ. Inhibition of gastrointestinal cancer by organosulfur compounds in garlic. In:Wattenberg, L, Lipkin, M, Kelloff, G, Boone, C, eds. Cancer Chemoprevention. Boca Raton, FL:CRC Press; 1992, pp 195 – 203.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Ip, C, Ganther, HE. Comparison of selenium and sulfur analogs in cancer prevention. Carcinogenesis 13:1167 – 1170; 1992.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ip, C, Lisk, DJ, Stoewsand, GS. Mammary cancer prevention by regular garlic and selenium-enriched garlic. Nutr Cancer 17:279–286; 1992.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Ip, C, Lisk, DJ. Bioavailability of selenium from selenium-enriched garlic. Nutr Cancer, in press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Clement Ip
  • Howard E. Ganther

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations