Propagative Transmission of Plant and Animal Viruses by Insects: Factors Affecting Vector Specificity and Competence

  • El Desouky Ammar
Part of the Advances in Disease Vector Research book series (VECTOR, volume 10)


Until recently, viruses were generally divided on the basis of their host range into bacterial, plant, vertebrate, and invertebrate viruses (82). However, it was clear that strict division of viruses according to host range is not always possible, since some families (e.g., Reoviridae, Rhabdoviridae, and more recently Bunyaviridae and Picornaviridae) included members that infect invertebrates, vertebrates, and/or plants (3, 83, 103). Furthermore, with complete nucleotide sequences available for many viruses, long stretches of amino acid sequence similarity in replicase proteins for certain groups of viruses of both plants and animals suggested that some “superfamilies,” which cross the host range lines, may have descended from a common ancestor (135). Thus, the concept of “unity of virology as a whole” became gradually established (82a), and in many cases the dividing line between “animal” and “plant” viruses is no longer valid.


Salivary Gland Plant Virus Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus Rift Valley Fever Virus Transovarial Transmission 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Adam, G. 1984. Plant virus studies in insect vector cell cultures. In M.A. Mayo and K.A. Harrap, eds., Vectors in Virus Biology. Academic Press, New York, pp. 37–62.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Adam, G., and Hsu, H.T. 1984. Comparison of structural proteins from two potato yellow dwarf viruses. J. Gen. Virol. 65:991–994.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Adams, J.R., and Bonami, J.R., eds. 1991. Atlas of Invertebrate Viruses. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ammar, E.D. 1975. Effect of European wheat striate mosaic, acquired by feeding on diseased plants, on the biology of its planthopper vector Javesella pellucida. Ann. Appl. Biol. 79:195–202.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ammar, E.D. 1975. Effect of European wheat striate mosaic, acquired transovarially, on the biology of its planthopper vector Javesella pellucida. Ann. Appl. Biol. 79:203–213.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ammar, E.D. 1985. Internal morphology and ultrastructure of leafhoppers and planthoppers. In L.R. Nault and J.G. Rodriguez, eds., The Leaf-hoppers and Planthoppers. John Wiley, New York, pp. 127–162.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ammar, E.D. 1991. Mechanisms of plant virus transmission by homopteran insects. In K. Mendgen and D.-E. Lesemann, eds., Electron Microscopy of Plant Pathogens. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp. 133–146.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ammar, E.D., Gingery, R.E., and Madden, L.V. 1990. Geographical isolates of maize stripe virus differing in efficiency of transmission by, and titer in, the planthopper Peregrinus maidis. Phytopathology 80:1022 (Abstr.).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ammar, E.D., Gingery, R.E., and Nault, L.R. 1987. Interactions between maize mosaic and maize stripe viruses in their insect vector, Peregrinus maidis, and in maize. Phytopathology 77:1051–1056.Google Scholar
  10. 9a.
    Ammar, E.D., Gingery, R.E., and Nault, L.R. 1993. Cytopathology and isolation of reoviruslike particles from the leafhopper Graminella nigrifrons (Homoptera, Cicadellidae). J. Invertebr. Pathol. (in press).Google Scholar
  11. 10.
    Ammar, E.D., and Nault, L.R. 1985. Assembly and accumulation sites of maize mosaic virus in its planthopper vector. Intervirology 24:33–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 11.
    Ammar, E.D., Nault, L.R., Styer, W.E., and Saif, Y.M. 1987. Staphylococcus, paramyxovirus-like, rickettsia-like and other structures in Peregrinus maidis (Homoptera, Delphacidae). J. Invert. Pathol. 49:209–217.Google Scholar
  13. 12.
    Arcus, Y.M., Houk, E.J., and Hardy, J.L. 1983. Comparative in vitro binding of an arbovirus to midgut microvillar membranes from susceptible and refractory Culex mosquitoes. Fed. Proc. 42:2141 (Abstr.).Google Scholar
  14. 13.
    Atcham, T., and Banttari, E.E. 1986. Histopathology, serology and transmission assay of AY and OBDV causing interference in dually infected aster leafhoppers. Phytopathology 76:1062 (Abstr.).Google Scholar
  15. 14.
    Backus, E.A. 1988. Sensory mechanisms and behaviours which mediate hemipteran plant-feeding: A taxonomic overview. J. Insect Physiol. 34:151–165.Google Scholar
  16. 15.
    Banttari, E.E. 1988. The occurrence and interactions of plant viruses and mollicutes in plant and insect vectors. In K. Maramorosch and S.P.J. Raychaudhuri, eds., Mycoplasma Diseases of Crops, Basic and Applied Aspects. Springer-Verlag, New York, pp. 193–208.Google Scholar
  17. 16.
    Banttari, E.E., and Zeyen, R.J. 1976. Multiplication of oat blue dwarf virus in the aster leafhopper. Phytopathology 66:896–900.Google Scholar
  18. 17.
    Behncken, G.M. 1971. Relationship of sowthistle yellow vein virus to an inefficienct aphid vector, Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas). Ph.D. Thesis, University of California, Berkeley, CA.Google Scholar
  19. 18.
    Behncken, G.M. 1973. Evidence of multiplication of sowthistle yellow vein virus in an inefficient aphid vector, Macrosiphum euphorbiae. Virology 53:405–412.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 19.
    Bennett, C.W. 1967. Apparent absence of cross-protection between strains of the curly top virus in the beet leafhopper, Circulifer tenellus. Phytopathology 57:207–209.Google Scholar
  21. 20.
    Berger, P.H., and Pirone, T.P. 1986. The effect of helper component on the uptake and localization of potyviruses in Myzus persicae. Virology 153:256–261.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 21.
    Black, L.M., and Brakke, M.K. 1952. Multiplication of wound tumor virus in an insect vector. Phytopathology 42:269–273.Google Scholar
  23. 22.
    Briddon, R.W., Pinner, M.S., Stanley, J., and Markham, P.G. 1990. Geminivirus coat protein gene replacement alters insect specificity. Virology 177:85–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 23.
    Brown, D.T., and Condreay, L.D. 1986. Replication of alphaviruses in mosquito cells. In S. Schlesinger and M.J. Schlesinger, eds., The Togaviridae and Flaviviridae. Plenum Press, New York, pp. 171–207.Google Scholar
  25. 24.
    Caciagli, P. 1991. Effect of anaesthesia with carbon dioxide on vectoring ability and survival of the planthopper Leodelphax striatellus. Ann. Appl. Biol. 119:257–264.Google Scholar
  26. 25.
    Chamberlain, R.W., and Sudia, W.D. 1961. Mechanism of transmission of viruses by mosquitoes. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 6:371–390.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 25a.
    Chandler, L.J., Hogge, G., Endres, M., Jacoby, D.R., Nathanson, N., and Beaty, B.J. 1991. Reassortment of La Crosse and Tahyna bunyaviruses in Aees triseriatus mosquitoes. Virus Res. 20:181–191.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 26.
    Chen, C.-C., and Chiu, R.-J. 1980. Factors affecting transmission of rice transitory yellowing virus by green leafhoppers. Plant Prot. Bull. (Taiwan) 22:297–306.Google Scholar
  29. 27.
    Chen, M.J., and Shikata, E. 1971. Morphology and intracellular localization of rice transitory yellowing virus. Virology 46:786–796.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 28.
    Chiykowski, L.N. 1981. Epidemiology of diseases caused by leafhopper-borne pathogens. In K. Maramorosch and K.F. Harris, eds., Plant Diseases and Vectors, Ecology and Epidemiology. Academic Press, New York, pp. 106–159.Google Scholar
  31. 29.
    Cohen, S., Duffus, J.E., and Liu, H.Y. 1989. Acquisition, interference, and retention of cucurbit leaf curl viruses in whiteflies. Phytopathology 79:109–113.Google Scholar
  32. 30.
    Conti, M. 1985. Transmission of plant viruses by leafhoppers and planthoppers. In L.R. Nault and J.G. Rodriguez, eds., The Leafhoppers and Planthoppers. John Wiley, New York, pp. 289–307.Google Scholar
  33. 30a.
    Cupp, E.W., Mare, C.J., Cupp, M.S., and Ramberg, F.B. 1992. Biological transmission of vesicular stomatitis (New Jersey) by Simulium vittatum (Diptera: Simuliidae). J. Med. Entomol. 29:137–140.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 31.
    DeFolliart, G.R., Grimstad, P.R., and Watts, D.M. 1987. Advances in mosquito-borne arbovirus/vector research. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 32:479–505.Google Scholar
  35. 32.
    Egan, B.T., Ryan, C.C., and Francki, R.I.B. 1989. Fiji disease. In C. Ricaud, B.T. Egan, A.G. Gillaspie, and C.G. Hughes, eds., Diseases of Sugarcane. Major Diseases. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 263–287.Google Scholar
  36. 33.
    Elliot, R.M. 1990. Molecular biology of the bunyaviridae. J. Gen. Virol. 71:501–522.Google Scholar
  37. 34.
    Enzmann, P.-J. 1973. Induction of an interferon-like substance in persistently infected Aedes albopictus cells. Arch. Gesamte Virusforsch. 41:382–389.Google Scholar
  38. 35.
    Falk, B.W., Kim, K.S., and Tsai, J.H. 1988. Electron microscopic and physicochemical analysis of a reo-like virus of the planthopper Peregrinus maidis. Intervirology 29:195–206.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 36.
    Falk, B.W., and Tsai, J.H. 1985. Serological detection and evidence for multiplication of maize mosaic virus in the planthopper, Peregrinas maidis. Phytopathology 75:852–855.Google Scholar
  40. 37.
    Falk, B.W., Tsai, J.H., and Lommel, S.A. 1987. Differences in the levels of detection for the maize stripe virus capsid and major non-capsid proteins in plant and insect hosts. J. Gen. Virol. 68:1801–1811.Google Scholar
  41. 38.
    Faran, M.E., Romoser, W.S., and Routier, R.G. 1988. The distribution of Rift Valley fever virus in the mosquito Culex pipiens as revealed by viral titration of diseased organs and tissues. Am. J. Tropic. Med. Hyg. 39:206–213.Google Scholar
  42. 39.
    Feinsod, F.M., Spielman, A., and Waner, J.L. 1975. Neutralization of Sindbis virus by antisera to antigens of vector mosquitoes. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 24:533–536.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 40.
    Francki, R.I.B., Ryan, C.C., Hatta, T., Rohozinski, J., and Grivell, C.J. 1986. Serological detection of Fiji disease virus antigens in the planthopper Perkinsiella saccharricida and its inefficient ability to transmit the virus. Plant Pathol. 35:324–328.Google Scholar
  44. 41.
    Fraser, R.D.B., Furlong, D.B., Trus, B.L., Nibert, M.L., Fields, B.N., and Steven, A.C. 1990. Molecular structure of the cell-attachment protein of reovirus: Correlation of computer-processed electron micrographs with sequence-based predictions. J. Virol. 64:2990–3000.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 42.
    Fukushi, T. 1969. Relationships between propagative rice viruses and their vectors. In K. Maramorosch, ed., Viruses, Vectors and Vegetation. John Wiley, New York, pp. 279–301.Google Scholar
  46. 43.
    Gaedigk, K., Adam, G., and Mundry, K.W. 1986. The spike protein of potato yellow dwarf virus and its functional role in the infection of inscet vector cells. J. Gen. Virol. 67:2763–2773.Google Scholar
  47. 44.
    Gamez, R., and Leon, P. 1988. Maize rayado fino and related viruses. In R. Koenig, ed., The Plant Viruses, Vol. 3. Plenum, New York, pp. 213–233.Google Scholar
  48. 44a.
    Gaviria, M.E., Martinez, C., and Gonzalez, R. 1989. Reduction of the vector capacity of Sogatodes oryzicola (Hom.: Delphacidae) for the rice (Oryza sativa) white leaf virus. Turrialba 38:300–305.Google Scholar
  49. 45.
    Gibb, K.S., and Randies, J.W. 1990. Distribution of velvet tobacco mottle virus in mirid vector and its relationship to transmissiblity. Ann. Appl. Biol. 116:513–521.Google Scholar
  50. 45a.
    Gibb, K.S., and Randies, J.W. 1991. Transmission of velvet tobacco mottle virus and related viruses by the mirid Cyrtopeltis nicotianae. In K.F. Harris, ed., Adv. Dis. Vector Res. 7:1–17.Google Scholar
  51. 46.
    Gildow, F.E. 1987. Virus-membrane interactions involved in circulative transmission of luteoviruses by aphids. Curr. Topics Vector Res. 4:93–120.Google Scholar
  52. 46a.
    Gildow, F.E. 1993. Evidence for receptor-mediated endocytosis regulating luteovirus acquisition by aphids. Phytopathology 83:270–277.Google Scholar
  53. 47.
    Gildow, F.E., and D’Arcy, C.J. 1988. Barley and oats as reservoirs for an aphid virus and influence on barley yellow dwarf virus transmission. Phytopathology 78:811–816.Google Scholar
  54. 48.
    Gildow, F.E., and Gray, S.M. 1992. Basal lamina as a selective barrier associated with vector-specific transmission of luteoviruses by aphids. Phytopathology 82:1103 (Abstr.).Google Scholar
  55. 49.
    Gingery, R.E., Gordon, D.T., and Nault, L.R. 1982. Purification and properties of maize rayado fino virus from the United States. Phytopathology 72:1313–1318.Google Scholar
  56. 50.
    Granados, R.R., Hirumi, H., and Maramorosch, K. 1967. Electron microscopic evidence for wound tumor virus accumulation in various organs of an inefficient leafhopper vector, Agalliopsis novella. J. Invert. Pathol. 9:147–159.Google Scholar
  57. 51.
    Grimstad, P.R., Paulson, S.L., and Craig, G.B., Jr. 1985. Vector competence of Aedes hendersoni (Diptera; Culicidae) for La Cross virus and evidence of a salivary-gland escape barrier. J. Med. Entomol. 22:447–453.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 52.
    Grimstad, P.R., and Walker, E.D. 1991. Aedes triseriatus (Diptera: Culicidae) and La Crosse virus. IV. Nutritional deprivation of larvae affects the adult barriers to infection and transmission. J. Med. Entomol. 28:378–386.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 52a.
    Guy, P.L., Toriyama, S., and Fuji, S. 1992. Occurrence of picorna-like virus in planthopper species and its transmission in Laodelphax striatellus. J. Invertebr. Pathol 59:161–164.Google Scholar
  60. 53.
    Hardy, J.L. 1988. Susceptibility and resistance of vector mosquitoes. In T.P. Monath, ed., The Arboviruses: Epidemiology and Ecology, Vol. 1. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, pp. 87–126.Google Scholar
  61. 54.
    Hardy, J.L., Apperson, G., Asman, S.M., and Reeves, W.C. 1978. Selection of a strain of Culex tarsalis highly resistant to infection following ingestion of western equine encephalomyelitis virus. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 27:313–321.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 55.
    Hardy, J.L., Houk, E.J., Kramer, L.D., and Reeves, W.C. 1983. Intrinsic factors affecting vector competence of mosquitoes for arboviruses. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 28:229–262.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 56.
    Hardy, J.L., Reeves, W.C., Bruen, J.P., and Presser, S.B. 1979. Vector competence of Culex tarsalis and other mosquito species for western equine encephalomyelitis virus. In E. Kurstak, ed., Arctic and Tropical Arboviruses. Academic Press, New York, pp. 157–171.Google Scholar
  64. 57.
    Harris, K.F. 1975. Fate of pea enation mosaic virus in PEMV-injected pea aphids. Virology 65:148–162.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 57a.
    Harris, K.F. 1977. An ingestion-egestion hypothesis of noncirculative virus transmission. In K.F. Harris and K. Maramorosch, eds., Aphids as Virus Vectors. Academic Press, New York, pp. 165–220.Google Scholar
  66. 57b.
    Harris, K.F. 1979. Leafhoppers and aphids as biological vectors: vector-virus relationships. In K. Maramorosch and K.F. Harris, eds., Leafhopper Vectors and Plant Disease Agents. Academic Press, New York, pp. 217–308.Google Scholar
  67. 58.
    Harris, K.F. 1981. Arthropod and nematode vectors of plant viruses. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 19:391–426.Google Scholar
  68. 58a.
    Harris, K.F. 1990. Aphid transmission of plant viruses. In C.L. Mandahar, ed., Plant Viruses Vol. II, Pathology. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp. 177–204.Google Scholar
  69. 59.
    Hatfil, S.J., Williamson, C., Kirby, R., and Von-Wechmar, M.B. 1990. Identification and localization of aphid lethal paralysis virus particles in thin tissue sections of the Rhopalosiphum padi aphid by in situ nucleic acid hybridization. J. Invert. Pathol. 55:265–271.Google Scholar
  70. 60.
    Hibino, H. 1989. Insect-borne viruses of rice. Adv. Dis. Vector Res. 6:209–241.Google Scholar
  71. 61.
    Houk, E.J., Kramer, L.D., Hardy, J.L., and Chiles, R.E. 1985. Western equine encephalomyelitis virus: in vivo infection and morphogenesis in mosquito mesenteronal epithelial cells. Virus Res. 2:123–138.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 62.
    Houk, E.J., Kramer, L.D., Hardy, J.L., and Presser, S.B. 1986. An intraspecific mosquito model for the mesenteronal infection barrier to western equine encephalomyelitis virus (Culex tarsalis and Culex pipiens). Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 35:632–641.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 63.
    Hsu, H.T. 1978. Cell fusion induced by a plant virus. Virology 84:9–18.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 64.
    Hsu, H.T., McBeath, J.H., and Black, L.M. 1977. The comparative susceptibilities of cultured vector and nonvector leafhopper cells to three plant viruses. Virology 81:257–262.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 65.
    Huff, C.G. 1931. A proposed classification of disease transmission by arthropods. Science 74:456–457.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 66.
    Inoue, H., and Omura, T. 1982. Transmission of rice gall dwarf virus by the green rice leafhopper. Plant Dis. 66:57–59.Google Scholar
  77. 67.
    Izadpanah, K. 1989. Purification and serology of the Iranian maize mosaic rhabdovirus. J. Phytopathol. 126:43–50.Google Scholar
  78. 68.
    Jackson, A.O., Francki, R.I.B., and Zuidema, D. 1987. Biology, structure and replication of plant rhabdoviruses. In R.R. Wagner, ed., The Rhabdoviruses. Plenum, New York, pp. 427–507.Google Scholar
  79. 68a.
    Jones, L.D., Hodgson, E., Williams, T., Higgs, S., and Nattall, P.A. 1992. Saliva activated transmission (SAT) of Thogoto virus: relationship with vector potential of different haematophagous arthropods. Med. Veter. Entomol. 6:261–265.Google Scholar
  80. 69.
    Kimmins, F.M. 1989. Electrical penetration graphs from Nilaparvata lugens on resistant and susceptible rice varieties. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 50:69–79.Google Scholar
  81. 70.
    Kimura, I., and Omura, T. 1988. Leafhopper cell cultures as a means for phytoreovirus research. Adv. Dis. Vector Res. 5:111–135.Google Scholar
  82. 71.
    Kisimoto, R. 1973. Leafhoppers and planthoppers. In A.J. Gibbs, ed., Viruses and Invertebrates. Elsevier, New York, pp. 137–135.Google Scholar
  83. 72.
    Kisimoto, R., and Watson, M.A. 1965. Abnormal development of embryos induced by inbreeding in Delphacodes pellucida Fab. and Delphacodes dubia Kirschbaum (Araepidae, Homoptera), vectors of European wheat striate mosaic virus. J. Invert. Pathol. 7:297–305.Google Scholar
  84. 73.
    Koblet, H. 1989. The “merry-go-round”: Alphaviruses between vertebrate and invertebrate cells. Adv. Virus. Res. 38:343–398.Google Scholar
  85. 74.
    Kramer, L.D., Hardy, J.L., and Presser, S.B. 1983. Effect of temperature of extrinsic incubation on the vector competence of Culex tarsalis for western equine encephalomyelitis virus. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 32:1130–1139.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 75.
    Lastra, J.R., and Esparza, J. 1976. Multiplication of vesicular stomatitis virus in the leafhopper Peregrinus maidis (Ashm.), a vector of a plant rhabdovirus. J. Gen. Virol. 32:139–142.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 75a.
    Laubscher, J.M., and Von-Wechmar, M.B. 1992. Influence of aphid lethal paralysis virus and Rhopalosiphum padi virus on aphid biology at different temperatures. J. Invertebr. Pathol. 60:134–140.Google Scholar
  88. 76.
    Leake, C.J. 1984. Transovarial transmission of arboviruses by mosquitoes. In M.A. Mayo and K.A. Harrap, eds., Vectors in Virus Biology. Academic Press, London, pp. 63–91.Google Scholar
  89. 77.
    Lee, P.E. 1967. Morphology of wheat striate mosaic virus and its localization in infected cells. Virology 33:84–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 78.
    Lee, C.-H., and Schloemer, R.H. 1981. Mosquito cells infected with Banzi virus secrete an antiviral activity which is of viral origin. Virology 110:402–410.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 79.
    Lopez-Abella, D., Bradley, R.H.E., and Harris, K.F. 1988. Correlation between stylet paths made during superficial probing and the ability of aphids to transmit nonpersistent viruses. Adv. Dis. Vector Res. 5:251–285.Google Scholar
  92. 80.
    Maramorosch, K. 1975. Infection of arthropod vectors by plant pathogens. In K. Maramorosch and R.E. Shope, eds., Invertebrate Immunity. Academic Press, New York, pp. 49–53.Google Scholar
  93. 81.
    Markham, P.G. 1983. Spiroplasmas in leafhoppers, a review. Yale J. Biol. Med. 56:741–751.Google Scholar
  94. 82.
    Matthews, R.E.F. 1982. Classification and nomenclature of viruses. Intervirology 17:1–199.Google Scholar
  95. 82a.
    Matthews, R.E.F. 1985. Viral taxonomy for the nonvirologist. Ann. Rev. Microbiol. 39:451–474.Google Scholar
  96. 83.
    Matthews, R.E.F. 1991. Plant Virology, 3rd ed. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  97. 84.
    McDaniel, L.L., Ammar, E.D., and Gordon, D.T. 1985. Assembly, morphology, and accumulation of a Hawaiian isolate of maize mosaic virus in maize. Phytopathology 75:1167–1172.Google Scholar
  98. 85.
    McIntosch, B.M., and Jupp, P.G. 1970. Attempts to transmit chikungunaya virus with six species of mosquito. J. Med. Entomol. 7:615–618.Google Scholar
  99. 86.
    Merrill, M.H., and TenBroeck, C. 1935. The transmission of equine encephalomyelitis virus by Aedes aegypti. J. Exp. Med. 62:687–695.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 87.
    Mims, C.A., Day, M.F., and Marshall, I.D. 1966. Cytopathic effects of Semliki Forest virus in the mosquito Aedes aegypti. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 15:775–784.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 88.
    Murphy, F.A. 1975. Cellular resistance to arbovirus infection. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 266:197–203.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 89.
    Murphy, F., and Harrison, A. 1980. Electron microscopy of the rhabdoviruses on animals. In D.H. Bishop, ed., Rhabdoviruses, Vol. 1. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, pp. 65–107.Google Scholar
  103. 90.
    Nagaraji, A.N., and Black, L.M. 1962. Hereditary variation in the ability of a leafhopper to transmit two unrelated plant viruses. Virology 16:152–162.Google Scholar
  104. 91.
    Nakasuji, F., and Kiritani, K. 1970. III. Effects of rice dwarf virus upon its vector, Nephotettix cincticeps Uhler (Hemiptera: Deltocephalidae) and its significance for changes in relative abundance of infected individuals among vector populations. Appl. Entomol. Zool. 5:1–12.Google Scholar
  105. 92.
    Nasu, S. 1963. Studies on some leafhoppers and planthoppers which transmit virus diseases of rice in Japan. Bull. Kyushu Agric. Expt. Sta. 8:153–349.Google Scholar
  106. 93.
    Nasu, S. 1965. Electron microscopic studies on transovarial passage of rice dwarf virus. Jpn. J. Appl. Entomol. Zool. 9:225–237.Google Scholar
  107. 94.
    Nault, L.R. 1992. Transmission biology, vector specificity and evolution of planthopper transmitted plant viruses. In R.F. Denno and T.J. Perfect, eds., Planthoppers. Their Ecology, Genetics and Management. Chapman and Hall, New York.Google Scholar
  108. 95.
    Nault, L.R., and Ammar, E.D. 1989. Leafhopper and planthopper transmission of plant viruses. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 34:503–529.Google Scholar
  109. 96.
    Nault, L.R., Gingery, R.E., and Gordon, D.T. 1980. Leafhopper transmission and host range of maize rayado fino virus. Phytopathology 70:709–712.Google Scholar
  110. 97.
    Nault, L.R., and Gordon, D.T. 1988. Multiplication of maize stripe virus in Peregrinus maidis. Phytopathology 78:991–995.Google Scholar
  111. 98.
    Nishi, Y. 1969. Inhibition of viruses by vector saliva. In K. Maramorosch, ed., Viruses, Vectors, and Vegetation. Interscience, New York, pp. 579–591Google Scholar
  112. 98a.
    Noda, H., Ishikawa, K., Hibino, H., and Omura, T. 1991. A reovirus in the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens. J. Gen. Virol. 72:2425–2430.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 99.
    Nuss, D.L. 1984. Molecular biology of wound tumor virus. Adv. Virus Res. 29:57–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 100.
    Nuss, D.L., and Dall, D.J. 1990. Structural and functional properties of plant reovirus genomes. Adv. Virus Res. 38:249–306.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 101.
    Ofori, F.A., and Francki, R.I.B. 1985. Transmission of leafhopper A virus, vertically through eggs and horizontally through maize in which it does not multiply. Virology 144:152–157.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 102.
    Omura, T., Kimura, I., Tsuchizaki, T., and Saito, Y. 1988. Infection by rice gall dwarf virus of cultured monolayers of leafhopper cells. J. Gen. Virol. 69:429–432.Google Scholar
  117. 103.
    Palmer, E.L., and Martin, M.L. 1982. An Atlas of Mammalian Viruses. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.Google Scholar
  118. 104.
    Paulson, S.L., and Grimstad, P.R. 1989. Replication and dissemination of La Crosse virus in the competent vector Aedes triseriatus and the incompetent vector Aedes hendersoni and evidence for transovarial transmission by A. hendersoni (Diptera; Culicidae). J. Med. Entomol. 26:602–609.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 105.
    Paulson, S.L., Grimstad, P.R., and Craig, G.B., Jr. 1989. Midgut and salivary gland barriers to La Crosse virus disseminated in mosquitoes of the Aedes triseriatus group. Med. Vet. Entomol. 3:113–123.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 105a.
    Paulson, S.L., Poirier, S.J., Grimstad, P.R., and Craig, G.B., Jr. 1992. Vector competence of Aedes hendersoni (Diptera: Culicidae) for La Crosse virus: lack of impaired function in virus-infected salivary glands and enhanced virus transmission by sporozoite-infected mosquitoes. J. Med. Entomol. 29:483–488.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 106.
    Peters, D., de Avila, A.C., Kitajima, E.W., Resende, R. de O., de Haan, P., and Goldbach, R.W. 1991. An overview of tomato spotted wilt virus. In H. Hsu and R.H. Lawson, eds., Virus-Thrips-Plant Interaction of Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus. Proceedings of a USDA Workshop, USDA-ARS-87, pp. 1–14.Google Scholar
  122. 107.
    Peterson, A.J., and Nuss, D. 1986. Regulation of expression of the wound tumor virus genome in persistently infected vector cells is related to changes in the translational activity of viral transcripts. J. Virol. 59:195–202.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 108.
    Pirone, T.P., and Thornbury, D.W. 1984. The involvement of a helper component in nonpersistent transmission of plant viruses by aphids. Microbiol. Sci. 1:191–193.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 109.
    Plumb, R.T. 1989. Detecting plant viruses in their vectors. Adv. Dis. Vector Res. 6:191–208.Google Scholar
  125. 110.
    Purcell, A.H., and Nault, L.R. 1991. Interactions among plant pathogenic prokaryotes, plants, and insect vectors. In P. Barbosa, V.A. Krischik, and C.G. Jones, eds., Microbial Mediation of Plant-Herbivore Interactions. John Wiley, New York, pp. 383–405.Google Scholar
  126. 111.
    Raga, I.N., Ito, K., Matsui, M., and Okada, M. 1988. Effects of temperature on adult longevity, fertility, and rate of transovarial passage of rice stripe virus in the small brown planthopper, Laodelphax striatellus Fallen (Homoptera: Delphacidae). Appl. Entomol. Zool. 23:67–75.Google Scholar
  127. 112.
    Ramasamy, M.S., Sands, M., Kay, B.H., Fanning, I.D., Lawrence, G.W., and Ramasamy, R. 1990. Anti-mosquito antibodies reduce the susceptibility of Aedes aegypti to arbovirus infection. Med. Vet. Entomol. 4:49–55.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 113.
    Reddy, D.V.R., and Black, L.M. 1974. Deletion mutations of the genome segments of wound tumor virus. Virology 61:458–473.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 114.
    Ribeiro, J.M.C. 1987. Role of saliva in blood-feeding by arthropods. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 32:463–478.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 115.
    Rochow, W.F., and Miller, I. 1975. Use of aphids injected with virus-specific antiserum for study of plant viruses that circulate in vectors. Virology 63:282–286.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 116.
    Romoser, W.S., Faran, M.E., and Bailey, C.L. 1987. Newly recognized route of arbovirus dissemination from the mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) midgut. J. Med. Entomol. 24:431–432.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 116a.
    Romoser, W.S., Faran, M.E., Baily, C.L., and Lerdthusnee, K. 1992. An immunocytochemical study of the distribution of Rift Valley fever virus in the mosquito Culex pipiens. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 46:489–501.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 117.
    Rosen, L. 1987. Sexual transmission of dengue viruses by Aedes albopictus. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 37:398–402.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 118.
    Sakimura, K. 1962. The present status of thrips-borne viruses. In K. Maramorosch, ed., Biological Transmission of Disease Agents. Academic Press, New York, pp. 33–40.Google Scholar
  135. 119.
    Scott, T.W., and Burrage, T.G. 1984. Rapid infection of salivary glands in Culiseta melanura with eastern equine encephalitis virus: An electron microscopic study. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 33:961–964.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 120.
    Scott, T.W., and Weaver, S.C. 1989. Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus: Epidemiology and evolution. Adv. Virus Res. 37:227–328.Google Scholar
  137. 121.
    Shikata, E. 1979. Cytopathological changes in leafhopper vectors of plant viruses. In K. Maramorosch and K.F. Harris, eds., Leafhopper Vectors and Plant Disease Agents. Academic Press, New York, pp. 309–325.Google Scholar
  138. 122.
    Shinkai, A. 1962. Studies on insect transmission of rice diseases in Japan. Bull. Natl. Agric. Sci. (Jpn.) Ser. C 14:1–112.Google Scholar
  139. 123.
    Singer, S.H., Barile, M.F., and Kirschstein, R.I. 1973. Mixed mycoplasmavirus infections in cell cultures. Ann. N.Y. Acd. Sci. 225:304–310.Google Scholar
  140. 124.
    Sinha, R.C. 1963. Effect of age of vector and of abdomen puncture on virus transmission. Phytopathology 53:1170–1173.Google Scholar
  141. 125.
    Sinha, R.C. 1965. Sequential infection and distribution of wound tumor virus in the internal organs of a vector after ingestion of virus. Virology 26:673–686.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 126.
    Sinha, R.C. 1967. Response of wound tumor virus infection in insects to vector age and temperature. Virology 31:746–748.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 127.
    Sinha, R.C. 1973. Viruses and leafhoppers. In A.J. Gibbs, ed., Viruses and Invertebrates. Elsevier, New York, pp. 493–511.Google Scholar
  144. 128.
    Sinha, R.C. 1981. Vertical transmission of plant pathogens. In J.J. Mckelvey, Jr., B.F. Eldridge, and K. Maramorosch, eds., Vectors of Disease Agents, Praeger, New York, pp. 119–121.Google Scholar
  145. 129.
    Sinha, R.C., and Chiykowski, L.N. 1967. Multiplication of wheat striate mosaic virus in its leafhopper vector Endria inimica. Virology 32:402–405.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 130.
    Sinha, R.C., and Chiykowski, L.N. 1969. Synthesis, distribution and some multiplication sites of wheat striate mosaic virus in a leafhopper vector. Virology 38:679–684.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 131.
    Sogawa, K. 1982. The rice brown planthopper: Feeding physiology and host plant interactions. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 27:49–73.Google Scholar
  148. 132.
    Stollar, V. 1980. Togaviruses in cultured arthropod cells. In R.W. Schlesinger, ed., The Togaviruses: Biology, Structure, Replication. Academic Press, New York, pp. 583–621.Google Scholar
  149. 133.
    Stollar, V. 1987. Approaches to the study of vector specificity for arboviruses—Model systems using cultured mosquito cells. Adv. Virus Res. 33:327–365.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 134.
    Storey, H.H. 1933. Investigations of the mechanism of transmission of plant viruses by insect vectors. I. Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 113:463–485.Google Scholar
  151. 135.
    Strauss, J.H., and Strauss, E.G. 1988. Evolution of RNA viruses. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 42:657–683.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. 136.
    Sundin, D.R., Beaty, B.J., Nathanson, N., and Gonzalez-Scarano, F. 1987. A G1 glycoprotein epitope of La Crosse virus; A determinant of infection of Aedes triseriatus. Science 235:591–593.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 137.
    Sylvester, E.S. 1969. Evidence of transovarial passage of the sowthistle yellow vein virus in the aphid Hyperomyzus lactucae. Virology 38:440–446.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 138.
    Sylvester, E.S. 1980. Circulative and propagative virus transmission by aphids. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 25:257–286.Google Scholar
  155. 139.
    Sylvester, E.S. 1985. Multiple acquisition of viruses and vector-dependent prokaryotes: Consequences on transmission. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 30:71–88.Google Scholar
  156. 140.
    Sylvester, E.S., and Richardson, J. 1981. Inoculation of the aphids Hypermyzus lactucae and Chaetosiphon jacobi with isolates of sowthistle yellow vein virus and strawberry crinkle virus. Phytopathology 71:598–602.Google Scholar
  157. 141.
    Sylvester, E.S., and Richardson, J. 1990. Comparison of vector-virus relationships of strawberry crickle plant rhabdovirus in two aphids (Chaetosiphon fragaefolii and C. jacobi) infected by injection. Hilgardia 58:1–25.Google Scholar
  158. 142.
    Takahashi, M. 1982. Differential transmission efficiency for Japanese encephalitis virus among colonized strains of Culex tritaeniorhynchus. Jpn. J. Sanit. Zool. 33:325–330.Google Scholar
  159. 143.
    Thompson, W.H. 1979. Higher venereal infection and transmission rates with La Crosse virus in Aedes triseriatus engorged before mating. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 28:890–896.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. 144.
    Thompson, W.H., and Beaty, B.J. 1978. Venereal transmission of La Crosse virus from male to female Aedes triseriatus. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 27:187–196.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. 145.
    Tsai, J.H., and Falk, B.W. 1988. Tropical maize pathogens and their associated insect vectors. Adv. Dis. Vector Res. 5:178–201.Google Scholar
  162. 146.
    Tsai, J.H., and Zitier, T.A. 1982. Characteristics of maize stripe virus transmission by corn delphacid. J. Econ. Entomol. 75:397–400.Google Scholar
  163. 147.
    Turell, M.J. 1988. Horizontal and vertical transmission of viruses by insect and tick vectors. In T.P. Monath, ed., The Arboviruses: Epidemiology and Ecology, Vol. 1. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, pp. 127–152.Google Scholar
  164. 147a.
    Turell, M.J., Hardy, J.L., and Reeves, W.C. 1982. Sensitivity of carbon dioxide in mosquitoes infected with California serogroup arboviruses. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 31:389–394.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. 148.
    Turell, M.J., Rossignol, P.A., Spielman, A., Rossi, C.A., and Baily, C.L. 1984. Enhanced arboviral transmission by mosquitoes that concurrently ingested microfilariae. Science 225:1039–1041.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. 149.
    Ullman, D.E., Cho, J.J., Mau, R.F.L., Hunter, W.B., Westcot, D.M., and Custer, D.M. 1992. Thrips-tomato spotted wilt virus interactions: morphological, behavioral and cellular components influencing thrips transmission. Adv. Dis. Vector Res. 9:195–240.Google Scholar
  167. 150.
    Ullman, D.E., Cho, J.J., Mau, R.F.L., Westcot, D.M., and Custer, D.M. 1992. A midgut barrier to tomato spotted wilt virus acquisition by adult western flower thrips. Phytopathology 82:1333–1342.Google Scholar
  168. 150a.
    Ullman, D.E., German, T.L., Sherwood, J.L., Westcot, D.M., and Cantone, F.A. 1993. Tospovirus replication in insect vector cells: immunocytochemical evidence that the nonstructural protein encoded by the S RNA of tomato spotted wilt tospovirus is present in thrips vector cells. Phytopathology 83:456–463.Google Scholar
  169. 150b.
    Vale, T.G., Dowling, M.L., and Cloonan, M.J. 1992. Infection and multiplication of Ross River virus in the mosquito vector Aedes vigilax (Skuse). Austral. J. Zool. 40:35–41.Google Scholar
  170. 151.
    Wang, M., Mitchell, C.J., Hu, J.S., Gonsalves, D., and Calisher, C.H. 1992. Determination of whether tomato spotted wilt virus replicates in Toxorhynchites amboinensis mosquitoes and relatedness of the virus to phleboviruses. Intervirology 33:32–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. 152.
    Watson, M.A., and Sinha, R.C. 1959. Studies on the transmission of European wheat striate mosaic virus by Delphacodes pellucida Fabricius, Virology 8:139–163.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. 153.
    Watts, D.M., Pantuwatana, S., DeFoliart, G.R., Yuill, T.M., and Thompson, W.H. 1973. Transovarial transmission of La Crosse virus (California encephalitis group) in the mosquito Aedes triseriatus. Science 182:1140–1141.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. 153a.
    Wayadande, A.C., and Nault, L.R. 1993. Leafhopper probing behavior associated with maize chlorotic dwarf virus transmission in maize. Phytopathology 83:522–526.Google Scholar
  174. 154.
    Weaver, S.C. 1986. Electron microscopic analysis of infection patterns for Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus in the vector mosquito, Culex (Melanoconion) taeniopus. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 35:624–631.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. 155.
    Weaver, S.C., Scott, T.W., Lorenz, L.H., Lerdthusnee, K., and Rosomer, W.S. 1988. Togavirus-associated pathogenic changes in the midgut of a natural mosquito vector. J. Virol. 62:2083–2090.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. 155a.
    Weaver, S.C., Tesh, R.B., and Guzman, H. 1992. Ultrastructural aspects of replication of the New Jersey serotype of vesicular stomatitis virus in a suspected sand fly vector, Lutzomyia shannoni (Diptera: Psychodidae). Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 46:201–210.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. 155b.
    Wijkamp, I., van Lent, J., Kormelink, R., Goldbach, R., and Peters, D. 1993. Multiplication of tomato spotted wilt virus in its insect vector, Frankliniella occidentalis. J. Gen. Virol. 74:341–349.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. 156.
    Zeigler, R.S., and Morales, F.J. 1990. Genetic determination of replication of rice hoja blanca virus within its planthopper vector, Sogatodes oryzicola. Phytopathology 80:559–566.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • El Desouky Ammar
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Economic Entomology, Faculty of AgricultureCairo UniversityGizaEgypt

Personalised recommendations