Polybrominated Biphenyl and Diphenylether Flame Retardants: Analysis, Toxicity, and Environmental Occurrence

  • A. M. C. M. Pijnenburg
  • J. W. Everts
  • J. de Boer
  • J. P. Boon
Part of the Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology book series (RECT, volume 141)


Polybromobiphenyls (PBBs) and polybromodiphenylethers (PBDEs) are presently being used as flame retardants in electronic equipment, plastics, building materials, and carpets. There are many standards and regulations applicable to flame retardants; those issued by the American Society for Testing of Materials (ASTM) alone account for more than one hundred (Arias 1992). The advantage of these compounds for industry is their high resistance toward acids, bases, heat, light, and reducing and oxidizing compounds. However, this high resistance becomes a great disadvantage when these compounds are discharged into the environment, where they persist for a long time. Furthermore, brominated dibenzofurans and dibenzodioxins may be formed when these flame retardants are heated (Watanabe and Tatsukawa 1990).


Flame Retardant Polar Bear PBDE Congener PBDE Concentration National Toxicology Program 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York, Inc. 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. M. C. M. Pijnenburg
    • 1
  • J. W. Everts
    • 1
  • J. de Boer
    • 2
  • J. P. Boon
    • 3
  1. 1.Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water ManagementNational Institute for Coastal and Marine Management (RIKZ)The HagueThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Netherlands Institute for Fisheries Research (RIVO)IJmuidenThe Netherlands
  3. 3.Netherlands Institute for Sea Research (NIOZ)TexelThe Netherlands

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