Preservation of Biodiversity: Aurora Trout
The habitat alteration and destruction caused by Sudbury’s metal extraction and smelting industries have contributed to the global depletion of biological resources (Box 11.1). Damage to local terrestrial vegetation and soils, described in Chapter 2, was striking. Less apparent but more widespread was the damage to aquatic ecosystems. Acidification of lakes from atmospheric deposition of smelter emissions occurred over an area of 17,000 km2 and affected lakes as far as 120 km from the city (Neary et al. 1990). An estimated 134 gamefish populations, as well as many populations of less well-studied fish species were extirpated (Matuszek et al. 1992). The loss of these populations did not endanger entire species, but it did contribute to the loss of unique genetic strains The losses are part of an alarming global trend to decreasing fish diversity. By region, the percentages of fish species classified as endangered, threatened, or in need of special protection are as follows: South Africa, 63%; Europe, 42%; Sri Lanka, 28%; North America, 31%; Australia, 26%; Iran, 22%; Latin America, 9% (Moyle and Leidy 1992). Within-species genetic diversity is also declining as fish are extirpated from individual lakes and rivers that comprise portions of their native range (Nehlson et al. 1991; Kaufman 1992).
KeywordsEurope Income Lime Expense Gravel
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