Preservation of Biodiversity: Aurora Trout

  • Ed J. Snucins
  • John M. Gunn
  • W. Keller
Part of the Springer Series on Environmental Management book series (SSEM)


The habitat alteration and destruction caused by Sudbury’s metal extraction and smelting industries have contributed to the global depletion of biological resources (Box 11.1). Damage to local terrestrial vegetation and soils, described in Chapter 2, was striking. Less apparent but more widespread was the damage to aquatic ecosystems. Acidification of lakes from atmospheric deposition of smelter emissions occurred over an area of 17,000 km2 and affected lakes as far as 120 km from the city (Neary et al. 1990). An estimated 134 gamefish populations, as well as many populations of less well-studied fish species were extirpated (Matuszek et al. 1992). The loss of these populations did not endanger entire species, but it did contribute to the loss of unique genetic strains The losses are part of an alarming global trend to decreasing fish diversity. By region, the percentages of fish species classified as endangered, threatened, or in need of special protection are as follows: South Africa, 63%; Europe, 42%; Sri Lanka, 28%; North America, 31%; Australia, 26%; Iran, 22%; Latin America, 9% (Moyle and Leidy 1992). Within-species genetic diversity is also declining as fish are extirpated from individual lakes and rivers that comprise portions of their native range (Nehlson et al. 1991; Kaufman 1992).


Brook Trout Powdered Limestone Piping Plover Smelter Emission Wood Bison 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Beggs, G.L., and J.M. Gunn. 1986. Response of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) to surface water acidification in Ontario. Water Air Soil Pollut. 30: 711–718.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Franklin, I.R. 1980. Evolutionary change in small populations, pp. 135–149. In M.E. Soule and B.A. Wilcox (eds.). Conservation Biology: An Evolutionary-Ecological Perspective. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA.Google Scholar
  3. Grewe, P.M., N. Billington, and P.D.N. Hebert. 1990. Phylogenetic relationships among members of Salvelinus inferred from mitochondrial DNA divergence. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 47: 984–991.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Henn, A.W., and W.H. Rinkenbach. 1925. Description of the aurora trout (Salvelinus timagamiensis), a new species from Ontario. Ann. Carnegie Museum 16: 131–141.Google Scholar
  5. Hynes, J.D., E.H. Brown, Jr., J.H. Helle, N. Ryman, and D.A. Webster. 1981. Guidelines for the culture of fish stocks for resource management. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 38: 1867–1876.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Kaufman, L. 1992. Catastrophic change in species-rich freshwater ecosystems. The lessons of Lake Victoria. Bioscience 42: 846–858.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Keller, W. 1978. Limnological Observations on the Aurora Trout Lakes. Technical Report. Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Sudbury.Google Scholar
  8. Lacy, R.C. 1992. The effects of inbreeding on isolated populations: are minimum viable population sizes predictable? pp. 277–296. In P.L. Fiedler and S.K. Jain (eds.). Conservation Biology: The Theory and Practice of Nature Conservation, Preservation, and Management. Chapman and Hall, New York.Google Scholar
  9. Matuszek, J.E., D.L. Wales, and J.M. Gunn. 1992. Estimated impacts of SO2 emissions from Sudbury smelters on Ontario’s sportfish populations. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 49 (Suppl. 1): 87–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. May, R.M. 1990. How many species? Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. 330b: 293–304.Google Scholar
  11. McGlade, J.M. 1981. Genotypic and phenotypic variation in the brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis (Mitchell). Doctoral thesis, University of Guelph, Guelph, Canada.Google Scholar
  12. McNeely, J.A., K.R. Miller, M.V. Reid, R.A. Mittermeier, and T.B. Werner. 1990. Conserving the World’s Biological Diversity. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland; WRI,CI,WWF-US, and the World Bank, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  13. Moyle, P.B., and R.A. Leidy. 1992. Loss of biodiversity in aquatic ecosystems: evidence from fish faunas, pp. 127–169. In P.L. Fiedler and S.K. Jain (eds.). Conservation Biology: The Theory and Practice of Nature Conservation, Preservation, and Management. Chapman and Hall, New York.Google Scholar
  14. Neary, B.P., P.J. Dillon, J.R. Munro, and B.J. Clark. 1990. The Acidification of Ontario Lakes: An Assessment of Their Sensitivity and Current Status with Respect to Biological Damage. Technical Report. Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Dorset, Ontario.Google Scholar
  15. Nehlson, W., J.E. Williams, and J.A. Lichatowich. 1991. Pacific salmon at the crossroads: stocks at risk from California, Oregon, Idaho, and Washington. Fisheries 16 (2): 4–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Parker, B.J., and C. Brousseau. 1988. Status of the aurora trout, Salvelinus fontinalis timagamiensis, a distinct stock endemic to Canada. Can. Field-Nat. 102 (1): 87–91.Google Scholar
  17. Qadri, S.U. 1968. Morphology and taxonomy of the aurora char, Salvelinus fontinalis timagamiensis. Natl. Museums Can. Contrib. Zool. 5: 1–18.Google Scholar
  18. Raup, D.M. 1986. Biological extinction in earth history. Science 231: 1528–1533.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Sale, P.F. 1967. A re-examination of the taxonomic position of the aurora trout. Can. J. Zool. 45: 215–225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Simpson, G.G. 1952. How many species? Evolution 6: 342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Wilson, E.O. 1984. Biophilia. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ed J. Snucins
  • John M. Gunn
  • W. Keller

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations