Hydrology and Biogeochemistry of Tropical Montane Cloud Forests: What Do We Really Know?

  • L. A. Bruijnzeel
  • J. Proctor
Part of the Ecological Studies book series (ECOLSTUD, volume 110)


Arguably, montane “cloud forests” (MCFs) are among the least understood of humid tropical forest ecosystems as far as their water and nutrient dynamics are concerned (Whitmore 1990). This is in spite of the fact that TMCF is often found in important headwater areas that, although scattered, together occupied about 500,000 km2 in the 1970s (Persson 1974). There is a growing recognition of the role of TMCF in supplying water to downstream areas during rainless periods (Zadroga 1981; Hamilton with King 1983; Stadtmüller and Agudelo 1990) and of their high degree of faunal and floristic endemism (La Bastille and Pool 1978; cf. Leo, this volume).


Rain Forest Montane Forest Cloud Forest Arnold Arboretum Rainfall Interception 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Aitken, P., Ribeny, F.M.J., and Brown, J.A.H. 1972. The estimation of mean annual runoff over the territory of Papua New Guinea. Civil Engineering Transactions (Australia) 14:49–56.Google Scholar
  2. Ash, J. 1987. Stunted cloud forest in Taveuni, Fiji. Pacific Science 41:191–199.Google Scholar
  3. Baynton, H.W. 1968. The ecology of an elfin forest in Puerto Rico. 2. The microclimate of Pico del Oeste. Journal of the Arnold Arboretum 49:419–430.Google Scholar
  4. Baynton, H.W. 1969. The ecology of an elfin forest in Puerto Rico. 3. Hilltop and forest influences on the microclimate of Pico del Oeste. Journal of the Arnold Arboretum 50:80–92.Google Scholar
  5. Bentley, B.L. 1987. Nitrogen fixation by epiphylls in a tropical rainforest. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 74:234–241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bentley, B.L., and Carpenter, E.J. 1984. Direct transfer of newly-fixed nitrogen from free-living epiphyllous microorganisms to their host plant. Oecologia 63:52–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Benzing, D., and Seeman, J. 1978. Nutritional piracy and host tree decline. Selbyana 2:133–148.Google Scholar
  8. Blackie, J.R. 1979. The water balance of the Kericho catchments. East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal 43:55–84.Google Scholar
  9. Braak, C. 1922. The climate of the Dutch East Indies. Verhandelingen van het Koninklijk Magnetisch en Meteorologisch Observatorium te Batavia no. 8 (1): 1–497.Google Scholar
  10. Bradford, K.J., and Yang, S.A. 1981. Physiological responses to waterlogging. Horticultural Science 16:3–8.Google Scholar
  11. Briscoe, C.B. 1966. Weather in the Luquillo Mountains of Puerto Rico. Forest Service Research Paper ITF-3. Institute of Tropical Forestry, Rio Piedras, Puerto Rico.Google Scholar
  12. Brouwer, R. 1960. The influence of aeration of the root environment on the growth of bean plants. Communications of the Soil Fertility Institute, Haren 107:11–21.Google Scholar
  13. Brown, W.H. 1919. Vegetation of Philippine mountains. Bureau of Printing, Manila.Google Scholar
  14. Bruijnzeel, L.A. 1988. Estimates of evaporation in plantations ofAgathis dammara Warb. in south-central Java, Indonesia. Journal of Tropical Forest Science 1:145–161.Google Scholar
  15. Bruijnzeel, L.A. 1989a. (De)forestation and dry season flow in the humid tropics: a closer look. Journal of Tropical Forest Science 1:229–243.Google Scholar
  16. Bruijnzeel, L.A. 1989b. Nutrient content of bulk precipitation in south central Java, Indonesia. Journal of Tropical Ecology 5:187–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bruijnzeel, L.A. 1989c. Nutrient cycling in moist tropical forests: the hydrological framework. In Mineral nutrients in tropical forest and savanna ecosystems, ed. J. Proctor, 383–415. Blackwell Scientific Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  18. Bruijnzeel, L.A. 1990. Hydrology of moist tropical forests and effects of conversion: a state of knowledge review. IHP-UNESCO Humid Tropical Programme, Paris.Google Scholar
  19. Bruijnzeel, L.A., and Wiersum, K.F. 1987. Rainfall interception by a young Acacia auriculiformis plantation forest in West Java: application of Gash’s analytical model. Hydrological Processes 1:309–319.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bruijnzeel, L.A., Waterloo, M.J., Proctor, J., Kuiters, A.T., and Kotterink, B. 1993. Hydrological observations in montane rain forests on Gunung Silam, Sabah, Malaysia, with special reference to the “Massenerhebung” effect. Journal of Ecology 81:145–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Buckley, R.C., Corlett, R.T., and Grubb, P.J. 1980. Are the xeromorphic trees of tropical montane rain forests drought-resistant? Biotropica 12:124–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Caceres, G. 1981. Importancia hidrologica de la intercepcion horizontal en un bosque muy humedo premontano en Balalaica, Turrialba, Costa Rica. MSc thesis, University of Costa Rica, Turrialba.Google Scholar
  23. Calder, I.R. 1992. Deuterium tracing for the estimation of transpiration from trees. Part 2. Estimation of transpiration rates and transpiration parameters using a timeaveraged deuterium tracing method. Journal of Hydrology 130: 27–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Calder, I.R., Wright, I.R., and Murdiyarso, D. 1986. A study of evaporation from a tropical rainforest — West Java. Journal of Hydrology 89:13–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Caldwell, M.M., Robberecht, R., and Billings, W.D. 1980. A steep latitudinal gradient of ultraviolet-B radiation in the arctic-alpine life zone. Ecology 61:600–611.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Caldwell, M.M., Teramura, A.H., andTevini, M. 1989. The changing solar ultraviolet climate and the ecological consequences for higher plants. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 4:363–367.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Calvo, J. 1986. An evaluation of Thornthwaite’s water balance technique in predicting stream runoff in Costa Rica. Hydrological Sciences Journal 31:51–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Cavelier, J. 1988. The Ecology of elfin cloud forests in Northern South America. Dissertation submitted for the annual research fellowship competition, Trinity College, University of Cambridge, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  29. Cavelier, J. 1989. Root biomass, production and the effect of fertilization in two tropical rain forests. PhD thesis, University of Cambridge.Google Scholar
  30. Cavelier, J., and Goldstein, G. 1989. Mist and fog interception in elfin cloud forests in Colombia and Venezuela. Journal of Tropical Ecology 5:309–322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Clements, R.G., and Colon, J.A. 1975. The rainfall interception process and mineral cycling in a montane rain forest in eastern Puerto Rico. In Mineral cycling in southeastern ecosystems, ed. F.G. Howell, J.B. Gentry, and M.H. Smith, 813–823. Technical Information Center, Energy Research Development and Administration, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  32. De los Santos, A.E. 1981. Water budget and nutrient fluxes in mossy forest on Mt. Data, Mt. Province, Philippines. MSc thesis, University of the Philippines at Los Barlos, Laguna, the Philippines.Google Scholar
  33. Dilks, T.J.K., and Proctor, M.C.F. 1975. Comparative experiments on temperature responses of bryophytes: assimilation, respiration and freezing damage. Journal of Bryology 8:317–336.Google Scholar
  34. Dohrenwend, R.E. 1979. Hydrologie behavior at the top of a tropical mountain. Research Note 29. Michigan Technological University, l’Anse, Michigan.Google Scholar
  35. Dollard, G.J., and Unsworth, M.H. 1983. Field measurements of turbulent fluxes of wind-driven fogs to a grass surface. Atmospheric Environment 17:775–780.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Durham, I.H., and Hatton, T.J. 1989. A powerful heat pulse logger system. In Hydrology and Water Resources Symposium, 477–478. Proceedings of the Christchurch Symposium 1989. University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand.Google Scholar
  37. Dye, P. J., Olbrich, B.W., and Calder, I.R. 1992. A comparison of the heat pulse method and deuterium tracing methods for measuring transpiration from Eucalyptus grandis trees. Journal of Experimental Botany 43:337–343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Edwards, P.J. 1982. Studies of mineral cycling in a montane rain forest in New Guinea. V. Rates of cycling in throughfall and litter fall. Journal of Ecology 70:807–827.Google Scholar
  39. Edwards, P.J., and Grubb, P.J. 1977. Studies of mineral cycling in a montane rain forest in New Guinea. I. The distribution of organic matter in the vegetation and soil. Journal of Ecology 65:943–969.Google Scholar
  40. Einhellig, F.A., and Kuan, L.Y. 1971. Effects of scopoletin and chlorogenic acid on stomatal aperture in tobacco and sunflower. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 98:155–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Einhellig, F. A., Rice, E.L., Risser, P.G., and Wender, S.H. 1970. Effects of scopoletin on growth, C02 exchange rates, and concentration of scopoletin, scopolin, and chlorogenic acids. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 97:22–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Ekern, P.C. 1964. Direct interception of cloud water on Lana’ihale, Hawai‘i. Soil Science Society of America Proceedings 28:419–421.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Fassbender, H.W., and Grimm, U. 1981. Ciclos bioquimicos en un ecosistema forestal de los Andes Occidentales de Venezuela II. Production y descomposicion de los residuous vegetales. Turrialba 31:39–48.Google Scholar
  44. Fleming, T.H. 1986. Secular changes in Costa Rican rainfall: correlation with elevation. Journal of Tropical Ecology 2:87–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Flenley, J.R. 1992. Ultraviolet-B insolation and the altitudinal forest limit. In The nature and dynamics of forest-savanna boundaries, ed. P. Furley, J. Proctor, and J.A. Ratter, 273–282. Chapman & Hall, London.Google Scholar
  46. Fölster, H., and Fassbender, H.W. 1978. Untersuchungen über Bodenstandorte der humiden Bergwälder in der nördlichen Andenkordillere. In Wissenschaftliche Tagung “Landnutzung in den humiden Gebieten der Tropen,“ 101–110. Institute of Soil Science and Forest Nutrition, Göttingen.Google Scholar
  47. Gallagher, M.W., Choularton, T.W., Morse, A.P., and Fowler, D. 1988. Measurements of the size dependence of cloud droplet deposition at a hill site. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 114:1291–1303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Gates, D.M. 1969. The ecology of an elfin forest in Puerto Rico. 4. Transpiration rates and temperatures of leaves in cool humid environment. Journal of the Arnold Arboretum 50:93–98.Google Scholar
  49. Gautam-Basak, M., and Proctor, J. 1983. Micronutrients, aluminium, silicon and ash in leaf litterfall from forests in Gunung Mulu National Park, Sarawak. Malaysian Forester 46:224–232.Google Scholar
  50. Gill, A.M. 1969. The ecology of an elfin forest in Puerto Rico. 5. Aerial roots. Journal of the Arnold Arboretum 50:197–209.Google Scholar
  51. Glass, A.D.M. 1973. Influence of phenolic acids on ion uptake. I. Inhibition of phosphate uptake. Plant Physiology 51:1037–1041.Google Scholar
  52. Glass, A.D.M. 1974. Influence of phenolic acids on ion uptake. III. Inhibition of potassium absorption. Journal of Experimental Botany 25:1104–1113.Google Scholar
  53. Gonggrijp, L. 1941. Evaporation from montane forest in West Java at an altitude of 1,750–2,000 m above sealevel. Tectona 34:437–447.Google Scholar
  54. Green, T.G.A., and Jane, G.T. 1983. Diurnal patterns of water potential in the evergreen cloud forests of the Kaimai Ranges, North Island, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Botany 21:379–389.Google Scholar
  55. Grieve, I.C., Proctor, J., and Cousins, S.A. 1990. Soil variation with altitude on Volcan Barva, Costa Rica. Catena 17:525–534.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Grimm, U., and Fassbender, H.W. 1981. Ciclos biquimicos en un ecosistema forestal de los Andes Occidentales de Venezuela. I. Inventario de las reservas orgänicas y minerales (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe, Al, Na). Turrialba 31:27–37.Google Scholar
  57. Grubb, P.J. 1974. Factors controlling the distribution of forest types on tropical mountains; new facts and a new perspective. In Altitudinal Zonation in Malesia, ed. J.R. Flenley, 1–25. University of Hull, Department of Geography Miscellaneous Series 16.Google Scholar
  58. Grubb, P.J. 1977. Control of forest growth and distribution on wet tropical mountains: with special reference to mineral nutrition. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 8:83–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Grubb, P.J. 1989. The role of mineral nutrients in the tropics: a plant ecologist’s view. In Mineral nutrients in tropical forest and savanna ecosystems, ed. J. Proctor, 417–439. Blackwell Scientific Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  60. Grubb, P.J., Lloyd, J.R., Pennington, T.D., and Whitmore, T.C. 1963. A comparison of montane and lowland rain forest in Ecuador. I. The forest structure, physiognomy and floristics. Journal of Ecology 51:567–601.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Grubb, P.J., and Tanner, E.VJ. 1976. The montane forests and soils of Jamaica: a reassessment. Journal of the Arnold Arboretum 57:33–68.Google Scholar
  62. Grubb, P.J., and Whitmore, T.C. 1966. A comparison of montane and lowland rain forest in Ecuador. II. The climate and its effects on the distribution and physiognomy of the forests. Journal of Ecology 54:303–333.Google Scholar
  63. Hamilton, L.S., with P.N. King. 1983. Tropical forested watersheds. Hydrologie and soils response to major uses or conversions. Westview Press, Boulder, Colorado.Google Scholar
  64. Harr, R.D. 1982. Fog drip in the Bull Run municipal watershed, Oregon. Water Resources Bulletin 18:785–789.Google Scholar
  65. Heaney, A., and Proctor, J. 1989. Chemical elements in litter in forests on Volcän Barva, Costa Rica. In Mineral nutrients in tropical forest and savanna ecosystems, ed. J. Proctor, 255–271. Blackwell Scientific Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  66. Herrmann, R. 1971. Die zeitlichen Änderung der Wasserbindung im Boden unter verschiedenen Vegetationsformationen der Höhenstufen eines tropischen Hochgebirges (Sierra Nevada de Sta. Marta, Kolumbien). Erdkunde 25:90–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Hetsch, W., and Hoheisel, K. 1976. Standorts- und Vegetationsgliederung in einem Tropischen Nebelwald. Allgemeine Forst- und Jagd Zeitung 147:200–209.Google Scholar
  68. Hofstede, R.G.M., Wolf, J., and Benzing, D.H. 1993. Epiphytic biomass and nutrient status of a Colombian Upper Montane Rain Forest. Selbyana (in press).Google Scholar
  69. Horner, J.D., Gosz, J.R., and Cates, R.G 1988. The role of carbon-based plant secondary metabolites in decomposition in terrestrial ecosystems. American Naturalist 132:869–883.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Hosokawa, T., Odani, N., and Tagawa, T. 1964. Causality of the distribution of corticulous species in forests with special reference to the eco-physiological approach. Bryologist 67:396–411.Google Scholar
  71. Howard, R.A. 1969. The ecology of an elfin forest in Puerto Rico. 8. Studies of stemgrowth and form and of leaf structure. Journal of the Arnold Arboretum 50:225–267.Google Scholar
  72. Hutjes, R.W.A., Wierda, A., and Veen, A.W.L. 1990. Rainfall interception in the Tai forest, Ivory Coast: application of two simulation models. Journal of Hydrology 114:259–275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Jaffe, M.J. 1980. Morphogenese responses of plants to mechanical stimuli or stress. Bioscience 30:239–243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Jane, G.T., and Green, T.G.A. 1985. Patterns of stomatal conductance in six evergreen tree species from a New Zealand cloud forest. Botanical Gazette 46:413–420.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Jordan, C.F. 1978. Stemflow and nutrient transfer in a tropical rain forest. Oikos 31:257–263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Jordan, C.F., and Heuveldop, J. 1981. The water budget of an Amazonian rainforest. Acta Amazonica 11:87–92.Google Scholar
  77. Juvik, J.O., and Ekern, P.C. 1978. A climatology of mountain fog on Mauna Loa, Hawai‘i island. Technical Report no. 118, Water Resources Research Center, University of Hawaii, Honolulu.Google Scholar
  78. Kapos, V., and Tanner, E.V.J. 1985. Water relations of Jamaican upper montane rain forest trees. Ecology 66:241–250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Kashiyama, T. 1956. Decrease of sea-fog density by a model shelterbelt. In Proceedings of the 12th Congress of the International Union of Forestry Research Organizations, Oxford, November.Google Scholar
  80. Kerfoot, O. 1968. Mist precipitation on vegetation. Forestry Abstracts 29:8–20.Google Scholar
  81. Kitayama, K. 1992. An altitudinal transect study of the vegetation on Mount Kinabalu, Borneo. Vegetatio 102:149–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Kitayama, K. and Mueller-Dombois, D. 1993. An altitudinal transect analysis of the windward vegetation on Haleakalä, a Hawaiian island mountain. Phytocoenologia 23:20 pp.Google Scholar
  83. Kobza, J., and Einhellig, F.A. 1987. The effects of ferulic acid on the mineral nutrition of grain sorghum. Plant & Soil 98:99–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Körner, C, Allison, A., and Hilscher, H. 1983. Altitudinal variation of leaf conductance and leaf anatomy in heliophytes of montane New Guinea and their interrelation with microclimate. Flora 174:91–135.Google Scholar
  85. Kuiters, A.T., and Sarink, H.M. 1987. Effects of phenolic acids on growth, mineral composition and chlorophyll content of several deciduous and coniferous trees. Zeitschrift fur Pflanzenernahrung und Bodenkunde 150:94–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. La Bastille, A., and Pool, D.J. 1978. On the need for a system of cloud-forest parks in Middle America and the Caribbean. Environmental Conservation 5:183–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Lamprecht, H. 1958. Der Gebirgs-Nebelwald der venezolanischen Anden. Schweizerische Zeitschrift für Forstwesen 2:1–26.Google Scholar
  88. Langley, A.M. 1985. Altitudinal changes in climate and litter on Gunung Silam, a small ultrabasic mountain in Sabah, East Malaysia. BSc thesis, University of Stirling.Google Scholar
  89. Lawton, R.O. 1982. Wind stress and elfin stature in a montane rain forest tree: an adaptive explanation. American Journal of Botany 69:1224–1230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Leigh, E.G. 1975. Structure and climate in tropical rain forest. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 6:67–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Leighton, M., and Wirawan, N. 1986. Catastrophic drought and fire in Borneo tropical rain forest associated with the 1982–83 El Niño southern oscillation. In Tropical rain forest and the world atmosphere, ed. G.T. Prance, 75–102. Westview Press, Boulder, Colorado.Google Scholar
  92. Lloyd, C.R., Gash, J.H.C., Shuttleworth, W.J., and Marques, A. de O.F. 1988. The measurement and modelling of rainfall interception by Amazonian rain forest. Forest and Agricultural Meteorology 43:277–294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Lloyd, C.R., and Marques, A. de O.F. 1988. Spatial variability of throughfall and stemflow measurements in Amazonian rain forest. Forest and Agricultural Meteorology 42:63–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Lowry, J.B., Lee, D.W., and Stone, B.C. 1973. Effects of drought on Mount Kinabalu. Malayan Nature Journal 26:178–179.Google Scholar
  95. Lugo, A.E. 1986. Water and the ecosystems of the Luquillo experimental forest. General Technical Report SO 63. Institute of Tropical Forestry, Rio Piedras.Google Scholar
  96. Lundgren, L., and Lundgren, B. 1979. Rainfall interception and evaporation in the Mazumbai forest reserve, West Usambara Mountains, Tanzania. Geografiska Annaler 61A:157–177.Google Scholar
  97. Lyford, W.H. 1969. The ecology of an elfin forest in Puerto Rico. 7. Soil, root, and earthworm relationships. Journal of the Arnold Arboretum 50:210–224.Google Scholar
  98. Mamanteo, B.P., and Veracion, V.P. 1985. Measurements of fogdrip, throughfall and stemflow in the mossy and Benguet pine (Pinus kesiya Royle ex Gordon) forests in the upper Agno river basin. Sylvatrop, the Philippines Forest Research Journal 10:271–282.Google Scholar
  99. Marrs, R.H., Proctor, J., Heaney, A., and Mountford, M.D. 1988. Changes in soil nitrogen-mineralization and nitrification along an altitudinal transect in tropical rain forest in Costa Rica. Journal of Ecology 76:466–482.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. McDowell, W.H., Sanchez, CG., Asbury, C.E., and Ramos Pérez, CR. 1990. Influence of sea salt aerosols and long range transport on precipitation chemistry at El Verde, Puerto Rico. Atmospheric Environment 24A:2813–2821.Google Scholar
  101. McVean, D.N. 1974. Mountain climates of the southwest Pacific. In Transactions of the third Aberdeen-Hull symposium on Malesian ecology, ed. J.R. Flenley, 47–57. Department of Geography, University of Hull Miscellaneous Series No. 16.Google Scholar
  102. Medina, E., Sobrado, M., and Herrera, R. 1978. Significance of leaf orientation for leaf temperature in an Amazonian sclerophyll vegetation. Radiation and Environmental Biophysics 15:131–140.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Monteith, J.L. 1965. Evaporation and environment. In The state and movement of water in living organisms. Symposium of the Society of Experimental Biology 19:205–234.Google Scholar
  104. Monteith, J.L. (ed.) 1976. Vegetation and the atmosphere. Volume 2. Case studies. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  105. Nadkarni, N.M. 1981. Canopy roots: convergent evolution in rainforest nutrient cycles. Science 214:1023–1024.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Nadkarni, N.M. 1984. Epiphyte biomass and nutrient capital of a neotropical elfin forest. Biotropica 16:249–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Nadkarni, N.M., and Matelson, T.J. 1992a. Biomass and nutrient dynamics of epiphytic litterfall in a neotropical montane forest, Costa Rica. Biotropica 24:24–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Nadkarni, N.M., and Matelson, T.J. 1992b. Biomass and nutrient dynamics of fine litter of terrestrially rooted material in a neotropical montane forest, Costa Rica. Biotropica 24:113–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Nagel, J.F. 1956. Fog precipitation on Table Mountain. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 82:452–460.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Newsome, D. 1986. Aspects of soil surface characteristics on Rakata and Anak Krakatau. In Krakatoa centenary expedition 1983 final report, ed. M. Bush, P. Jones, and K. Richards, 134–156. Department of Geography, University of Hull Miscellaneous Series No. 33.Google Scholar
  111. Odum, H.T. 1970. Rain forest structure and mineral cycling homeostasis. In A tropical rain forest, ed. H.T. Odum and R.F. Pidgeon, H3–52. United States Atomic Energy Commission, Oak Ridge, Tennessee.Google Scholar
  112. Olbrich, B.W. 1991. The verification of the heat pulse velocity technique for estimating sap flow in Eucalyptus grandis. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 21:836–841.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Patterson, D.T. 1981. Effects of allelopathic chemicals on growth and physiological responses of soybean (Glycine max). Weed Science 29:53–59.Google Scholar
  114. Rutter, A.J. 1975. The hydrological cycle in vegetation. In Vegetation and the atmosphere, ed. J.L. Monteith, 111–154. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  115. Schier, GA. and Jensen, K.F. 1992. Atmospheric deposition effects on foliar injury and foliar leaching in red spruce. In Ecology and decline of red spruce in the Eastern United States, eds. C. Eagar and M.B. Adams, 271–294. Springer-Verlag, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Schmidt, F.H. 1950. On the distribution of sunshine in Java. Verhandelingen van het Meteorologisch en Geofysisch Observatorium te Djakarta 42:1–77.Google Scholar
  117. Sevink, J. 1984. An altitudinal sequence of soils in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta. In Studies on tropical Andean ecosystems. Volume 2. La Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta (Colombia), ed. T. van der Hammen and P.M. Ruiz, 131–138. J. Cramer, Berlin.Google Scholar
  118. Shuttleworth, W.J. 1988. Evaporation from Amazonian rain forest. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society Series B 233:321–346.Google Scholar
  119. Stadtmüller, T. 1987. Cloud forests in the humid tropics: a bibliographic review. The United Nations University, Tokyo, and Centro Agronomico Tropical de Investigation y Ensenanza, Turrialba, Costa Rica.Google Scholar
  120. Stadtmüller, T., and Agudelo, N. 1990. Amount and variability of cloud moisture input in a tropical cloud forest. International Association of Hydrological Sciences Publication 193:25–32.Google Scholar
  121. Steinhardt, U. 1979. Untersuchungen über den Wasser- und Nährstoffhaushalt eines andinen Wolkenwaldes in Venezuela. Göttinger Bodenkundliche Berichte 56:1–185.Google Scholar
  122. Sugden, A.M. 1986. The montane vegetation and flora of Margarita Island, Venezuela. Journal of the Arnold Arboretum 67:187–232.Google Scholar
  123. Sullivan, J.H., Teramura, A.H., and Ziska, L.H. 1992. Variation in UV-B sensitivity in plants from a 3,000 m elevational gradient in Hawai’i. American Journal of Botany 79:737–743.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Tanner, E.V.J. 1977a. Mineral cycling in montane rain forests in Jamaica. PhD thesis, University of Cambridge.Google Scholar
  125. Tanner, E.V.J. 1977b. Four montane rain forests of Jamaica: a quantitative characterization of the floristics, the soils and the foliar mineral levels, and a discussion of the interrelations. Journal of Ecology 65:883–918.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Tanner, E.V.J. 1980a. Litterfall in montane rain forests of Jamaica and its relation to climate. Journal of Ecology 68:833–848.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Tanner, E.V.J. 1980b. Studies on the biomass and productivity in a series of montane rain forests in Jamaica. Journal of Ecology 68:573–588.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Tanner, E.V.J. 1985. Jamaican montane forests: nutrient capital and cost of growth. Journal of Ecology 73:553–568.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Tanner, E.V.J., and Kapos, V. 1982. Leaf structure of Jamaican upper montane rainforest trees. Biotropica 14:16–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Tanner, E.V.J., Kapos, V, and Franco, W. 1992. Nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization effects of Venezuelan montane forest trunk growth and litterfall. Ecology 73:78–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Tanner, E.V.J., Kapos, V., Freskos, S., Healey, J.R., and Theobald, A.M. 1990. Nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization of Jamaican montane forest trees. Journal of Tropical Ecology 6:231–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Teramura, A.H. 1983. Effects of ultraviolet-B radiation on the growth and yield of crop plants. Physiologia Plantarum 58:415–427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Tie, Y.L., Baillie, I.C., Phang, C.M.S., and Lim, CP. 1979. Soils of Gunung Mulu National Park. Department of Agriculture, Sarawak.Google Scholar
  134. Trinidad Pizarro, R. 1985. La composicion quimica del agua de alluvia y su influencia en el pH. In Abstracts of the 12th Symposium on Natural Resources, 11 December 1985, p. 10. Puerto Rico Department of Natural Resources, San Juan.Google Scholar
  135. Troll, C. 1956. Der Klima- und Vegetationsaufbau der Erde im Lichte neuer Forschungen. Journal of the Academy of Science, Mainz:21 6–229.Google Scholar
  136. Vance, E.D., and Nadkarni, N.M. 1990. Microbial biomass and activity in canopy organic matter and the forest floor of a tropical cloud forest. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 22:677–684.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Van der Plas, M.C. 1992. Hydrological characteristics of the forest floor in undisturbed and logged-over rain forest, Danum Valley, Sabah, Malaysia. MSc thesis, Free University, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  138. Van Reuier, H. 1987. Soil studies in the Bukit Raya nature reserve. In Report of the 1982–1983 Bukit Raya expedition, ed. H.P. Nooteboom, 7–23. Rijksherbarium, Leiden, the Netherlands.Google Scholar
  139. Van Steenis, CG.G.J. 1972. The mountain flora of Java. E.J. Brill, Leiden, the Netherlands.Google Scholar
  140. Vaughan, D., and Ord, B. 1990. Influence of phenolic acids on morphological changes in roots of Pisum sativum. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 52: 289–299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Vaughan, R.E., and Wiehe, P.O. 1947. Studies on the vegetation of Mauritius. IV. Some notes on the internal climate of the upland climax forest. Journal of Ecology 34:126–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Veneklaas, E.J. 1990. Rainfall interception and above-ground nutrient fluxes in Colombian montane tropical rain forest. PhD thesis, University of Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands.Google Scholar
  143. Veneklaas, E.J., and Van Ek, R. 1990. Rainfall interception in two tropical montane rain forests, Colombia. Hydrological Processes 4:311–326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Genderen, M. 1990. Hydrological properties of the epiphyte mass of a montane tropical rain forest. Vegetatio 89:183–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Venkataramanan, C, and Chinnamani, S. 1978. A preliminary note on the return of nutrient by the leaf litter of wet (montane) evergreen Shola forests of Nilgiris. Indian Forester 104:450–456.Google Scholar
  146. Vis, M. 1986. Interception, drop size distributions and rainfall kinetic energy in four Colombian forest ecosystems. Earth Surface Processes & Landforms 11:591–603.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Vitousek, P.M., Matson, P.A., and Turner, R.A. 1988. Elevation and age gradients in Hawaiian montane rainforest: foliar and soil nutrients. Oecologia 77:565–570.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Vogelmann, H.W. 1973. Fog precipitation in the cloud forests of Eastern Mexico. Bioscience 23:96–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Wadsworth, F.H., and Bonnet, J.A. 1951. Soil as a factor in the occurrence of two types of montane forest in Puerto Rico. Caribbean Forester 12:67–70.Google Scholar
  150. Walter, H. 1979. Vegetation und Klimazonen. Ulmer Verlag, Stuttgart.Google Scholar
  151. Ward, R.C., and Robinson, M. 1989. Principles of hydrology. McGraw Hill, London.Google Scholar
  152. Waterloo, M.J. 1989. A hydrological study of the mass elevation effect on Gunung Silam, a small coastal ultrabasic mountain in Sabah, East Malaysia. MSc thesis, Free University, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  153. Weathers, K.C et al. 1988. Cloud water chemistry from ten sites in North America. Environmental Science and Technology 22:1018–1026.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Weaver, P.L. 1972. Cloud moisture interception in the Luquillo Mountains of Puerto Rico. Caribbean Journal of Science 12:129–144.Google Scholar
  155. Weaver, P.L., Byer, M.D., and Bruck, D.L. 1973. Transpiration rates in the Luquillo Mountains of Puerto Rico. Biotropica 5:123–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Weaver, P.L., Medina, E., Pool, D., Dugger, K, Gonzales-Liboy, J., and Cuevas, E. 1986. Ecological observations in the dwarf cloud forest of the Luquillo Mountains of Puerto Rico. Biotropica 18:79–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Werner, W.L. 1988. Canopy dieback in the Upper Montane rain forests of Sri Lanka. GeoJournal 17:245–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Werner, W.L., and Balasubramaniam, S. 1988. Structure and dynamics of the upper montane rain forests of Sri Lanka. In Tropical forests in transition, ed. J.G. Goldammer, 165–171. Birkhäuserverlag, Basel, Switzerland.Google Scholar
  159. Whitmore, T.C.W. 1989. Tropical forest nutrients, where do we stand? A tour de horizon. In Mineral nutrients in tropical forest and savanna ecosystems, ed. J. Proctor, 1–13. Blackwell Scientific Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  160. Whitmore, T.C. 1990. An introduction to tropical rain forests. Clarendon Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  161. Whitmore, T.C, and Burnham, CP. 1969. The altitudinal sequence of forest and soils on granite near Kuala Lumpur. Malayan Nature Journal 22:99–118.Google Scholar
  162. Whittaker, R.J., Bush, M.B., and Richards, K. 1989. Plant recolonization and vegetation succession on the Krakatau islands, Indonesia. Ecological Monographs 59:59–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Wolf, J. 1993. Ecology of epiphytes and epiphyte communities in montane rain forests, Colombia. PhD thesis, University of Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  164. Zadroga, F. 1981. The hydrological importance of a montane cloud forest area of Costa Rica. In Tropical agricultural hydrology, ed. R. Lai and E.W. Russell, 59–73. J. Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  165. Zinck, A. 1986. Los Suelos. Caracteristicas y fragilidad de los suelos en ambiente de Sei va Nublada: el ejemplo de Rancho Grande. In La Selva Nublada de Rancho Grande Parque Nacional “Henri Pittier”, ed. O. Huber, 31–66. Fondo Editorial Acta Cientifica Venezolana, Caracas.Google Scholar
  166. Ziska, L.H., Teramura, A.H., and Sullivan, J.H. 1992. Physiological sensitivity of plants along an elevational gradient to UV-B radiation. American Journal of Botany 79:863–871.6.75/8.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York, Inc. 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • L. A. Bruijnzeel
  • J. Proctor

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations