Heat Exchange in Extracorporeal Systems

  • Richard L. Rigatti
  • Roger Stewart


In the early years of clinical heart-lung bypass, blood-warming devices were used to maintain the patient’s normal (37°C) temperature during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). The development of hypothermic CPB techniques led to the development of heat-exchange devices for the extracorporeal circuit that are capable of rapidly warming or cooling blood.


Film Coefficient Heat Exchanger Extracorporeal Circuit Total Thermal Resistance Membrane Lung 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Donald DE, Fellows JL. Relation of temperature, gas tension and hydrostatic pressure to the formation of gas bubbles in extracorporeally oxygenated blood. Surg Forum 1960; 10: 589–592.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Chapman AJ. Heat Transfer. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co Inc; 1974:11–63.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Braun PR, Hommedieu BD, Klinedinst WJ, et al. Aluminum contamination by heat-exchangers during cardiopulmonary bypass. Presented at the American Academy of Cardiovascular Perfusion; September 1988:69–72; New Orleans.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Vogler C, Sotelo-Avila C, Lagunoff D, et al. Aluminum-containing emboli in infants treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. N Eng! JMed 1988; 319: 75–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Berglin E, Hanson HA, William-Olsson G. Polytetrafluoroethylene and anodized aluminum surfaces in an extracorporeal circuit: scanning electron microscopic study. Artif Organs 1982; 6: 54–57.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Haveland SM. Blood heat-exchange: myths and reality. Scanmag1990; 2: 19–23.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Webb GE. Comparison of esophageal and tympanic temperature monitoring during cardiopulmonary bypass. Anesth Analg 1973; 52: 729–733.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Benzinger TH, Taylor GW. Cranial measurements of internal temperature in man. In: Temperature —Its Measurement and Control in Science and Industry. New York: Reinhold Publishing Corp; 1963: 1111–1120.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Dickey WT, Ahlgren EW, Stephen CR. Body temperature monitoring via the tympanic membrane. Surgery 1967; 67: 981–984.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Wilson RD, Knapp C, Traber DL, et al. Tympanic thermography: a clinical and research evaluation of a new technique. South Med J 1971; 64:1452–1455. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Jani K, Carli FM, Bidstrup BP, et al. Prevention of body temperature reduction (afterdrop) following hypothermic perfusion. Perfusion 1988; 3: 301–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ralley FE, et al. The effects of shivering on oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production in patients rewarming from hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass. Can J Anaesth 1988; 35: 332–337.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Dietrich WD, Busto R, Valdes I, et al. Effects of normothermic venous mild hyperthermic forebrain ischemia in rats. Stroke 1990; 21: 1318–1325.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Richard L. Rigatti
  • Roger Stewart

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations