Physics of Stone Fragmentation

  • Desmond H. Birkett
  • Graham Watson
  • Steven E. Raper
  • Frederic E. Eckhauser

Abstract

In a particular case, minimal-access management of bile duct stones depends on the available access routes to the biliary system, the anatomy of the biliary system, and the size and number of the stones. The most common method of stone removal is endoscopic retrograde cholangiopan creatography (ERCP) with papillotomy and balloon or basket extraction of the stone. Extraction can also be achieved via a T-tube tract, if present, or by transhepatic percutaneous access to the biliary tree, when the other two routes are not available. Transhepatic biliary access is achieved by percutaneous puncture under local anes thesia and pursued under radiological guidance. Those stones that are too large to be extracted whole are frag mented.

Keywords

Quartz Retina Coherence Boiling Gall 

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References

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Desmond H. Birkett
  • Graham Watson
  • Steven E. Raper
  • Frederic E. Eckhauser

There are no affiliations available

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