Advertisement

Transdifferentiation of Growth Hormone and Prolactin Secreting Cells

  • L. Stephen Frawley
Part of the Serono Symposia USA Norwell, Massachusetts book series (SERONOSYMP)

Abstract

Until a decade ago, it was widely held that the growth hormone (GH)- producing somatotrophs and the prolactin (PRL)-secreting mammotrophs were separate and distinct cell types. This view began to change in 1985 with the publication of two papers by our group. In one of these, we characterized the ontogeny of GH- and PRL-secreting cells in fetal and neonatal rats and found that the appearance of GH secretors preceded that of PRL cells by about a week (1). In addition, we developed and utilized the sequential plaque assay to demonstrate that virtually all of the initial PRL secretors also released GH. This suggested that PRL secretors initially arose from a subset of traditional somatotrophs, and provided the first direct evidence that GH and PRL secretors could functionally interconvert.

Keywords

Growth Hormone Pituitary Cell Plaque Assay Musk Shrew Reverse Hemolytic Plaque Assay 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Hoeffler JP, Boockfor FR, Frawley LS. Ontogeny of prolactin cells in neonatal rats: initial prolactin secretors also release growth hormone. Endocrinology 1985;117:187.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Behringer RR, Mathews LS, Palmiter RD, Brinster RL. Dwarf mice produced by genetic ablation of growth hormone-expressing cells. Genes Dev 1988;2:453.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Borrelli E, Heyman RA, Arias C, Sawchenko PE, Evans RM. Transgenic mice with inducible dwarfism. Nature 1989;339:538.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Mulchahey JJ, Jaffe RB. Detection of a potential progenitor cell in the human fetal pituitary that secretes both growth hormone and prolactin. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1987;66:24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Asa SL, Kovacs K, Horvath E, Losinski NE, Laszlo FA, Domokos I, Hallid/y WC. Human fetal adenohypophysis. Neuroendocrinology 1988;48:423.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kineman RD, Faught WJ, Frawley LS. The ontogenic and functional relationships between growth hormone- and prolactin-releasing cells during the development of the bovine pituitary. J Endocrinol 1992;134:91–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Frawley LS, Boockfor FR, Hoeffler JP. Identification by plaque assays of a pituitary cell type that secretes both growth hormone and prolactin. Endocrinology 1985;116:734.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Lloyd RV, Coleman K, Fields K, Nath V. Analysis of prolactin and growth hormone production in hyperplastic and neoplastic rat pituitary tissues by the hemolytic plaque assays. Cancer Res 1987;47:1087.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Leong DA, Lau SK, Sinha YN, Kaiser DL, Thorner MO. Enumeration of lactotropes and somatotropes among male and female pituitary cells in culture: evidence in favor of a mammosomatotrope subpopulation in the rat. Endocrinology 1985;116:1371.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Nikitovitch-Winer MB, Atkin J, Maley BE. Colocalization of prolactin and growth hormone within specific adenohypophyseal cells in male, female, and lactating female rats. Endocrinology 1987;121:625.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ishibashi T, Shiino M. Co-localization pattern of growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL) within the anterior pituitary cells in the female rat and female musk shrew. Anat Rec 1989;223:185.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Lloyd RV, Anagnostou D, Cano M, Barkan AL, Chandler WF. Analysis of mammosomatotropic cells in normal and neoplastic human pituitary tissues by the reverse hemolytic plaque assay and immunocytochemistry. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1988;66:1103.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Sasaki F, Iwama Y. Two types of mammosomatotropes in mouse adenohypophysis. Cell Tissue Res 1989;256:645.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Fumagalli G, Zanini A. In cow anterior pituitary, growth hormone and prolactin can be packed in separate granules of the same cell. J Cell Biol 1985;100:2019.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hashimoto S, Fumagalli G, Zanini A, Meldolesi J. Sorting of three secretory proteins to distinct secretory granules in acidophilic cells of cow anterior pituitary. J Cell Biol 1987;105:1579.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kineman RD, Faught WJ, Frawley LS. Mammosomatotropes are abundant in bovine pituitaries: influence of gonadal status. Endocrinology 1991;128:2229.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ishibashi T, Shiino M. Subcellular localization of prolactin in the anterior pituitary cells of the female Japanese house bat, Pipistrellus abramus. Endocrinology 1989;124:1056.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Childs GV, Unabia G, Lee BL, Lloyd J. Maturation of follicle stimulating hormone gonadotropes during the rat estrous cycle. Endocrinology 1992;131:29–36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Yamaguchi M, Ogren L, Endo H, Thordarson G, Bigsby RM, Talamantes F. Production of mouse placental lactogen-I and placental lactogen-II by the same giant cell. Endocrinology 1992;131:1595–602.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Selman K, Kafatos FC. Transdifferentiation in the labial gland of silk moths: is DNA synthesis required for cellular metamorphosis? Cell Differ 1974;3:81–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Beresford WA. Direct transdifferentiation: can cells change their phenotype without cell division? Cell Differ Dev 1990;29:81–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Okada TS. Transdifferentiation: flexibility in cell differentiation. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1991.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Ishibashi T, Shiino M. Subcellular localization of PRL in the anterior pituitary cells of the female Japanese house bat. Endocrinology 1989;124:1056.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Porter TE, Hill JB, Wiles CD, Frawley LS. Is the mammosomatotrope a transitional cell for the functional interconversion of growth hormone- and prolactin- secreting cells? Suggestive evidence from virgin, gestating, and lactating rats. Endocrinology 1990;127:2789.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Porter TE, Wiles CD. Evidence for bidirectional interconversion of mammotropes and somatotropes: rapid reversion of acidophilic cell types to pregestational proportions after weaning. Endocrinology 1991;129:1215.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kineman RD, Henricks DM, Faught WJ, Frawley LS. Fluctuations in the proportions of growth hormone- and prolactin-secreting cells during the bovine estrous cycle. Endocrinology 1991;129:1221–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Boockfor FR, Hoeffler JP, Frawley LS. Estradiol induces a shift in cultured cells that release prolactin or growth hormone. Am J Physiol 1986;250:E103.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Kineman RD, Faught WJ, Frawley LS. Steroids can modulate transdifferentiation of prolactin and growth hormone cells in bovine pituitary cultures. Endocrinology 1992;130:3289–94PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Hoeffler JP, Frawley LS. Hypothalamic factors differentially affect the proportions of cells that secrete growth hormone or prolactin. Endocrinology 1987;120:791.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Frawley LS, Hoeffler JP. Hypothalamic peptides affect the ratios of GH and PRL cells: role of cell division. Peptides 1988;9:825.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Stefaneanu L, Kovacs K, Hovrath E, Asa SL, Losinski NE, Billestrup N, Price J, Vale W. Adenohypophysial changes in mice transgenic for human growth hormone-releasing factor: a histological, immunocytochemical, and electron microscopic investigation. Endocrinology 1989;125:2710.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Boockfor FR, Hoeffler JP, Frawley LS. Cultures of GH3 cells are functionally heterogeneous: thyrotropin-releasing hormone, estradiol and Cortisol cause reciprocal shifts in the proportions of growth hormone and prolactin secretors. Endocrinology 1985;117:418.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Boockfor FR, Schwarz LK. Cultures of GH3 cells contain both single and dual hormone secretors. Endocrinology 1987;122:762.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Kineman RD, Frawley LS. Secretory characteristics and phenotypic plasticity of growth hormone and prolactin secreting cell lines. J Endocrinol 1994;140:455–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Inoue K, Sakai T. Conversion of growth hormone-secreting cells into prolactin- secreting cells and its promotion by insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 in vitro. Exp Cell Res 1991;195:53–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Boroni F, Sigala S, Dal Toso R, Balsari A, Missale C, Spano PF. Nerve growth factor dictates the acquisition of the lactotrope phenotype in GH3 cells. Program, 3rd International Pituitary Congress, 1993;Abstract MP-12.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Frawley LS, Boockfor FR. Mammosomatotropes: presence and functions in normal and neoplastic pituitary tissue. Endocr Rev 1991;12:337–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Ow DW, Wood KV, DeLuca M, de Wet JR, Helsinki DR, Howell SH. Transient and stable expression of the firefly luciferase gene in plant cells and transgenic plants. Science 1986;234:856–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Wick RA. Photon counting imaging: applications in biomedical research. BioTechniques 1989;7:262–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Barnes WM. Variable patterns of expression of luciferase in transgenic tobacco leaves. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1990;87:9183–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Kay SA, Millar AJ. Circadian regulated Cab gene transcription in higher plants. In: Young M, ed. The molecular biology of circadian rhythms. New York: Marcel Dekker, 1992:73–89.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Millar AJ, Short SR, Chua N-H, Kay SA. A novel circadian phenotype based on firefly luciferase expression in transgenic plants. Plant Cell 1992;4:1075–87.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Frawley LS, Faught WJ, Nicholson J, Moomaw B. Real time measurement of gene expression in living endocrine cells. Endocrinology 1994;135:468–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York, Inc. 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • L. Stephen Frawley

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations