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The Role of Radioactive 14C and 26Al in the Ionization of Circumstellar Envelopes

  • Alfred E. Glassgold


The circumstellar envelopes of evolved stars are another of the many scientific interests of C. H. Townes. When I became interested in the topic about ten years ago, pioneering studies at infrared and radio wavelengths had already demonstrated the potential of millimeter and submillimeter spectroscopy for understanding this interesting part of stellar evolution [1]. A good part of the scientific and technical basis for this situation had been developed by Townes and his collaborators, as descibed in an early review [2]. After introducing the subject, I will discuss the ionization of circumstellar envelopes in Sec. 27.2 and the role of live radioactivity in Sec. 27.3.


Outer Envelope Asymptotic Giant Branch Circumstellar Envelope Asymptotic Giant Branch Star Circumstellar Dust 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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  • Alfred E. Glassgold

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