Intraspinal Morphine for Pain
Pain is an enormous social and economic problem. The treatment of chronic pain is also controversial, in part because of the subjectivity of the complaint. Most health care professionals have been trained to treat acute pain, expecting to see changes in vital signs, facial grimacing, and guarding behavior. However, in the chronic pain patient these signs are not evident. Therefore, the only reliable indicator of the presence of pain is the patient’s self-report. This may prove challenging to the health professional when assessing pain in the patient who reports a pain intensity of 10 on a 0 to 10 scale but does not “look as if he/she is in pain.” Reports of intensity scores that do not correlate with behavior are common and may also reflect coping strategies and other patient-specific variables.
KeywordsNeuropathic Pain Systemic Opioid Epidural Morphine Intrathecal Morphine Nonmalignant Pain
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.