Causality of Hormone-Associated Human Cancers
  • Janet R. Daling
Conference paper


Early epidemiologic studies linked reproductive and hormonal factors to breast cancer risk (1). These factors included early age at menarche, natural age at menopause, menstrual characteristics, nulliparity, age at first full-term pregnancy, number of live births, and lactation. A woman’s family history of breast cancer has also been known for quite some time to affect breast cancer risk strongly (2).


Breast Cancer Breast Cancer Risk Estrogen Replacement Therapy Combine Hormone Therapy Early Epidemiologic Study 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Kelsey JL, Gammon MD, John EM (1993) Reproductive factors and breast cancer. Epidemiol Rev 15:36–47.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Macklin MT (1959) Comparison of the number of breast cancer deaths observed in relatives of breast cancer patients, and the number expected on the basis of mortality rates. J Natl Cancer Inst 22:927–951.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hunter DJ, Willett WC (1993) Diet, body size, and breast cancer. Epidemiol Reviews 15:110–132.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Malone KE, Daling JR, Weiss NS (1993) Oral contraceptives and breast cancer risk. Epidemiol Rev 15:80–97.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Brinton LA, Schairer C (1993) Estrogen replacement therapy and breast cancer risk. Epidemiol Rev 15:66–79.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    White E, Malone KE, Weiss NS, Daling JR (1994) Breast cancer among young U.S. women in relation to oral contraceptive use. J Natl Cancer Inst 86:505–514.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Stanford JL, Thomas DT (1993) Exogenous progestins and breast cancer. Epidemiol Rev 15:98–107.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Rosenberg L, Metzger LS, Palmer JR (1993) Alcohol consumption and risk of breast cancer: A review of the epidemiologic evidence. Epidemiol Rev 15:133–144.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Gammon MD, John EM (1993) Recent etiologic hypotheses concerning breast cancer. Epidemiol Rev 15:163–168.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Frisch RE, Wyshak G, Albright NL et al (1985) Lower prevalence of breast cancer and cancers of the reproductive system among former college athletes compared to non-athletes. Br J Cancer 52:885–891.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Vihko JV, Apter DL, Pukkala EI et al (1992) Risk of breast cancer among female teachers of physical education and languages. Acta Oncol 31:201–204.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bernstein L, Henderson BE, Hanisch R et al (1994) Physical exercise and reduced risk of breast cancer in young women. J Natl Cancer Inst 86:1403–1408.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Dorgan JF, Brown C, Barrett M et al (1994) Physical activity and risk of breast cancer in the Framingham Heart Study. Am J Epidemiol 139:662–669.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Daling JR, Malone KE, Voigt LF et al (1994) Risk of breast cancer among young women: Relationship to induced abortion. J Natl Cancer Inst 86:1584–1592.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Lip worth L, Katsouyanni K, Ekbom A et al (1995) Abortion and the risk of breast cancer. A case-control study in Greece. Int J Epidemiol, in press.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Rookus MA, van Leeuwen FE (1995) Breast cancer risk after induced abortion, a Dutch case-control study. Am J Epidemiol 141: S54.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bu L, Boigt LF, Yu Z et al (1995) Risk of breast cancer associated with induced abortion in a population at low risk of breast cancer. Am J Epidemiol 141:S85.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Newcomb PA, Storer BE, Longnecker MP et al (1995) Pregnancy termination in relation to risk of breast cancer. Am J Epidemiol 141: S54.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Russo J, Russo IH (1987) Biology of disease. Biological and molecular bases of mammary carcinogenesis. Lab Invest 57:112–137.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Russo J, Wilgus G, Russo IH (1979) Susceptibility of the mammary gland to carcinogenesis. I. Differentiation of the mammary gland as determinant of tumor incidence and type of lesion. Am J Pathol 96:721–736.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Miki Y, Swensen J, Shattuck-Eidens D et al (1994) A strong candidate for the breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility gene BRCA1. Science 266:66–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Wooster R, Neuhausen SL, Mangion J et al (1994) Localization of a breast cancer susceptibility gene, BRCA2, to chromosome 13ql2–13. Science 265:2088–2090.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York, Inc. 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Janet R. Daling

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations