All organisms must control their cell division. Unicellular organisms have to coordinate nuclear division, cytokinesis (cell separation) and DNA synthesis so that the correct order of events is maintained (1, 2). In addition, the cell cycle must be coordinated with nutrient availability and differentiation into the meiotic, or sexual, cycle. Multicellular organisms, such as humans, also have to maintain the correct order of events within the cell cycle, and must, in addition, regulate the growth and division of different tissues so that uncontrolled proliferation does not lead to tumorigenesis (3, 4). This complex task of controlling the timing of cell proliferation in response to both external stimuli and internal status is not yet fully understood. The study of cell cycle controls in a number of experimental systems has led to the discovery that much of the basic machinery underlying control of the cell cycle has been conserved in all eukaryotic organisms (5). In this chapter, I will attempt to describe these fundamental mechanisms that control the cell cycle, and to relate them to the etiology of cancer development.
KeywordsFission Yeast Cell Cycle Control Phosphorylation Event Kinase Complex Inhibitory Tyrosine Phosphorylation
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 6.Nurse P (1975) Genetic control of cell size and cell division in yeast. Nature 256 547:551.Google Scholar
- 11.Gould KL, Moreno S, Owen DJ, et al. (1991) Phosphorylation at Thrl67 is required for Schizosaccharomyces pombe p34cdc2 function. EMBO J 11:3297–3309.Google Scholar
- 13.Parker LL, Atherton-Fessler S, Piwnica-Worms H (1992) pl07weel is a dual-specificity kinase that phosphorylates p34cdc2 on tyrosine 15. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 89:2971–2921.Google Scholar
- 17.Dunphy WG (1994) The decision to enter mitosis. TICB 4:202–207.Google Scholar
- 19.Novak B, Tyson JJ (1993) Numerical analysis of a comprehensive model of M-phase control in xenopus oocytes and intact embryos. J Cell Sci 4:1153–1168.Google Scholar
- 34.Firpo EJ, Koff A, Solomon M, Roberts JM (1994) Inactivation of a cdk2 inhibitor during interleukin 2-induced proliferation of human T lymphocytes. Molec and Cell Biol 14: 4889–4901.Google Scholar