Ventricular Septal Defects

  • Bradley J. Harlan
  • Albert Starr
  • Fredric M. Harwin


Isolated ventricular septal defect (VSD) is the most common congenital cardiac defect, with an incidence of approximately 2 per 1000 live births. Isolated VSD accounts for 25% of all congenital heart disease. The wide range of physiology and natural history of VSDs necessitates careful consideration of operative indications and timing. Understanding of the anatomic variations and applicable surgical techniques is necessary to achieve the excellent results that are possible today.


Aortic Valve Tricuspid Valve Ventricular Septal Defect Ventricular Septal Defect Pulmonary Valve 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bradley J. Harlan
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Albert Starr
    • 4
    • 5
    • 6
  • Fredric M. Harwin
    • 7
  1. 1.Section of Thoracic and Cardiovascular SurgerySutter Memorial HospitalSacramentoUSA
  2. 2.Davis Medical SchoolUniversity of CaliforaniaSacramentoUSA
  3. 3.Oregon Health Sciences UniversityPortlandUSA
  4. 4.Oregon Health Sciences UniversityPortlandUSA
  5. 5.Heart Institute at St. Vincent HospitalPortlandUSA
  6. 6.Starr-Wood Cardiac Group, P.C.PortlandUSA
  7. 7.Harwin StudiosPortlandUSA

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