Ventricular Septal Defects
Isolated ventricular septal defect (VSD) is the most common congenital cardiac defect, with an incidence of approximately 2 per 1000 live births. Isolated VSD accounts for 25% of all congenital heart disease. The wide range of physiology and natural history of VSDs necessitates careful consideration of operative indications and timing. Understanding of the anatomic variations and applicable surgical techniques is necessary to achieve the excellent results that are possible today.
KeywordsAortic Valve Tricuspid Valve Ventricular Septal Defect Ventricular Septal Defect Pulmonary Valve
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Bjork VO: The transatrial approach to ventricular septal defect. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 47: 178, 1964.Google Scholar
- Ellis FH, Ongley PA, Kirklin JW: Ventricular septal defect with aortic valvular incompetence. Surgical considerations. Circulation 27: 789, 1963.Google Scholar
- Griepp RE, French JW, Shumway NE, Baum D: Is pulmonary artery banding for ventricular septal defects obsolete? Circulation 48,50(Suppl II): II - 14, 1974.Google Scholar
- Koch W: Weitere mitteilungen über den Sinusknoten des Herzens. Verh Dtsch Ges Pathol 13: 85, 1909.Google Scholar
- Lev M: The architecture of the conduction system in congenital heart disease. III. Ventricular septal defect. Arch Pathol 70: 529, 1970.Google Scholar
- Muller WH Jr, Damman JF Jr: The treatment of certain congenital malformations of the heart by creation of pulmonic stenosis to reduce pulmonary hypertension and pulmonary flow. Surg Gynecol Obstet 95: 312, 1952.Google Scholar
- Tandler J: Anatomie des Herzens. Jena, Gustav Fischer, 1913, p 64.Google Scholar
- Titus JL, Daugherty GW, Edwards JE: Anatomy of the atrioventricular con-duction system in ventricular septal defect. Circlation 28: 72, 1963.Google Scholar