Ventricular Septal Defects
Isolated ventricular septal defect (VSD) is the most common congenital cardiac defect, with an incidence of approximately 2 per 1000 live births. Isolated VSD accounts for 25% of all congenital heart disease. The wide range of physiology and natural history of VSDs necessitates careful consideration of operative indications and timing. Understanding of the anatomic variations and applicable surgical techniques is necessary to achieve the excellent results that are possible today.
KeywordsResis Nylon Tate Milo Endocarditis
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