• Steven W. Effler
  • Charles T. Driscoll
  • Susan M. Doerr
  • Carol M. Brooks
  • Martin T. Auer
  • Bruce A. Wagner
  • Jeffrey Addess
  • Wei Wang
  • David L. Johnson
  • J. Jiao
  • Saul G. Dos Santos
Part of the Springer Series on Environmental Management book series (SSEM)


The concentrations of four major cations, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, and three major anions, HCO 3 - , SO 4 2 -, and Cl-, essentially constitute the total ionic salinity of most fresh waters, as other ions make very minor contributions (Wetzel 1983). Undissociated materials, such as silicic acid, make insignificant contributions to the total dissolved solids in moderate to higher ionic strength waters. Four of the major ions, Mg2+, Na+, K+ and Cl-;, are largely conservative (i.e., unreactive) in lake ecosystems. The salinity of most lakes is governed by the composition of inflowing waters (Wetzel 1983).


Total Phosphorus Particulate Organic Carbon Total Dissolve Phosphorus Onondaga Lake Particulate Inorganic Carbon 
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© Springer-Verlag New York, Inc. 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Steven W. Effler
  • Charles T. Driscoll
  • Susan M. Doerr
  • Carol M. Brooks
  • Martin T. Auer
  • Bruce A. Wagner
  • Jeffrey Addess
  • Wei Wang
  • David L. Johnson
  • J. Jiao
  • Saul G. Dos Santos

There are no affiliations available

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