Not so long ago, it was generally believed that problems such as theorem proving, speech and pattern recognitions, game playing (e.g., chess and backgammon), and highly complex deterministic and stochastic systems can only be tackled by humans because their formulations and solutions require some abilities that are found only in humans (e.g., the ability to think, observe, memorize, learn, see, smell, etc.). However, intensive research during the last three decades or so by researchers from several fields shows that many of these problems can actually be formulated and solved by machines.
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