Cadmium Contamination of Vegetable Crops, Farmlands, and Irrigation Waters

  • Carmen Cabrera
  • Eduardo Ortega
  • María-Luisa Lorenzo
  • María-del-Carmen López
Part of the Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology book series (RECT, volume 154)

Abstract

The health risks posed by waste products and by the accumulation of certain metals, including cadmium, are of great concern to health agencies and researchers. Cadmium, an element identified in 1817 (Schwarz 1974), is present in nature in low concentrations and is normally bound to Zn, Pb, or Cu. High levels of Cd are associated with sources of industrial emission (Linder 1985; National Research Council 1989), and very steep increases in contamination by this metal have been documented during the 1980s and 1990s (FAO-WHO 1986; Robards and Worsfold 1991; Seiler and Sigel 1988). The extensive use of Cd in industry has lead to widespread contamination, which has mid- and long-term physiopathological effects on the human body.

Keywords

Surfactant Toxicity Corn Dust Microwave 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abolino O, Aceto M, Sacchero G, Sarzanini C, Mentasti E (1995) Determination of copper, cadmium, iron, manganese, nickel and zinc in Antarctic sea water. Comparison of electrochemical and spectroscopic procedures. Anal Chim Acta 305: 200–206.Google Scholar
  2. Adelojv SB, Sahara E, Jagner D (1996) Anodic stripping potentiometric determination of Cu, Pb, Cd and Zn in natural waters on a novel combined electrode system. Anal Lett 29: 283–302.Google Scholar
  3. Alegría A, Barbera R, Farre R, Lagarda MJ (1991) Environmental cadmium, lead and nickel contamination: possible relationship between soil and vegetable content. Fresenius J Anal Chem 339: 654–657.Google Scholar
  4. AOAC (1990) Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (Helrich K, ed) 15th ed. AOAC, Arlington, VA.Google Scholar
  5. Arcos MT, Ancin MC, Echeverria JC, Gonzalez A, Garrido JJ (1993) Study of lability of heavy metals in wines with different degrees of aging through differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry. J Agric Food Chem 41: 2333–2339.Google Scholar
  6. Bakhtar D, Bradford GR, Lund L (1989) Dissolution of soils and geological materials for simultaneous elemental analysis by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry and atomic absorption spectrometry. Analyst 114: 901–909.Google Scholar
  7. Beaufays JM, Nangniot P (1976) Comparative study of determination cadmium in water, fertilizers and plants using differential pulse polarography and atomic absorption spectrometry. Analusis 4: 193–199.Google Scholar
  8. Beitz HD, Grosch W (1985) Food Chemistry. Springer, Heidelberg.Google Scholar
  9. Bem H, Ryan DE (1984) Determination of seven trace elements in natural waters by neutron activation analysis. Anal Chim Acta 166: 189–197.Google Scholar
  10. Bettinelli M, Pastorelli N, Baroni U (1986) Determination of trace metals in sediment standard reference materials by graphite-furnace atomic absorption spectrometry with a stabilized temperature platform. Anal Chim Acta 185: 110–117.Google Scholar
  11. Boon DY, Soltanpour PN (1992) Lead, cadmium, and zinc contamination of Aspen Garden soils and vegetation. J Environ Qual 21: 82–85.Google Scholar
  12. Bosque MA, Schuhmacher M, Domingo JL, Llobet JM (1990) Concentrations of lead and cadmium in edible vegetables from Tarragona province, Spain. Sci Total Environ 95: 61–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Buldini PL, Saxena P, Saxena V, Toponi A (1990) Voltammetric determination of trace amounts of copper, cadmium and lead in lead-acid battery electrolyte. Analyst 115: 1073–1075.Google Scholar
  14. Cabanis MT, Cassanas G, Cabanis JC, Braun S (1988) Comparison of four methods for digesting food samples for determination of trace levels of cadmium by flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry. J Assoc Off Anal Chem 71: 1033–1037.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Cabrera C, Lorenzo ML, Gallego C, Lopez MC, Lillo E (1992) Cadmium levels in food and feed crops, determined by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. J Agric Food Chem 40: 1631–1633.Google Scholar
  16. Cabrera C, Ortega E, Gallego C, Lopez MC, Lorenzo ML, Asensio C (1994a) Cadmium concentration in farmlands in Southern Spain: possible sources of contamination. Sci Total Environ 153: 261–265.Google Scholar
  17. Cabrera C, Ortega E, Gallego C, Lorenzo ML, Asensio C, Lopez MC (1994b) Lead concentration in farmlands in Southern Spain: influence of the use of sewage sludge as fertilizer. Bull Environ Contam Toxico 153: 32–38.Google Scholar
  18. Cabrera C, Lorenzo ML, Lopez MC (1995) Electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometric determination of cadmium, copper, iron, lead, and selenium in fruit slurry: analytical application to nutritional and toxicological quality control. J AOAC Int 78: 1061–1067.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Cal S, Yue L, Shang Q, Nordberg G (1995) Cadmium-exposure among residents in an area contaminated by irrigation water in China. Bull WHO 73: 359–367.Google Scholar
  20. Capodaglio G, Scarponi G, Toscano G, Barbante C, Cescon P (1995) Speciation of trace metals in seawater by anodic stripping voltammetry: critical analytical steps. Fresenius J Anal Chem 351: 386–392.Google Scholar
  21. Casarett LJ, Doull J (1986) Casarett and Doull’s Toxicology. Macmillan, New York.Google Scholar
  22. CEE (1980) Directiva 80/778/CEE del Consejo de 15 de julio de 1980, relativa a la calidad de las aguas destinadas al consumo humano. DOCE, Brussels.Google Scholar
  23. CEE (1985) Directiva 83/513/CEE del Consejo de 26 de septiembre de 1983, relativa a los valores limite y a los objetivos de calidad para los vertidos de cadmic). DOCE, Brussels.Google Scholar
  24. CEE (1986) Directiva 86/278/CEE del Consejo de 12 de junio de 1986, relativa a la protección del medio ambiente y, en particular, de los suelos, en la utilizacion de los lodos de depuradora en agricultura. DOCE, Brussels.Google Scholar
  25. Chang AC, Page AL, Asano T, Hespanhol I (1996) Developing human health-related chemical guidelines for reclaimed waste water irrigation. Water Sci Technol 33: 463–472.Google Scholar
  26. Chlopecka A, Bacon JR, Wilson MJ, Kay J (1996) Forms of cadmium, lead and zinc in contaminated soil from Southwest Poland. J Environ Qual 25: 69–79.Google Scholar
  27. Collery P, Corbella J, Domingo JL, Etienne JC, Llobet JM (1996) Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on Metal Ions in Biology and Medicine, Barcelona, May 1996. In: Metal Ions in Biology and Medicine, vol. 4.Google Scholar
  28. Concon JM (1988) Food Toxicology: Contaminants and Additives. Dekker, New York.Google Scholar
  29. Cornelis R, Sabbioni E, Van der Venne MT (1994) Trace element reference values in tissues from inhabitants of the European Community. VII. Review of trace elements in blood, serum and urine of the Belgian population and critical evaluation of their possible use as reference values. Sci Total Environ 158: 191–226.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Crews HM, Dean JR, Ebdon L, Massey RC (1989) Application of high performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry to the investigation of cadmium speciation in pig kidney following cooking and in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. Analyst 114: 895–899.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Culbard EB (1988) Metal contamination in British urban dusts and soils. J Environ Qual 17: 226–234.Google Scholar
  32. Dabeka RW, Makenzie AD (1986) Graphite-furnace atomic absorption spectrometric determination of lead and cadmium in food after nitric-perchloric acid digestion and coprecipitation with ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate. J Spectrosc 31: 44–52.Google Scholar
  33. Davies BE (1992) Inter-relationships between soil and zinc properties and the uptake of cadmium, copper, lead and zinc from contaminated soils by radish (Raphanus sativus L.). Water Air Soil Pollut 3: 331–342.Google Scholar
  34. Davies BE, Roberts LJ (1975) Heavy metals in soils and radish in a mineralized limestone area of Wales, Great Britain. Sci Total Environ 4: 249–261.Google Scholar
  35. Davies BE, Ginnever RC (1979) Trace metal contamination of soils and vegetables in Shipham, Somerset. J Agric Sci 93: 753–756.Google Scholar
  36. Desaulniers JA, Sturgeon RA, Berman SS (1985) Atomic absorption determination of trace metals in marine sediments and biological tissues using a stabilized temperature platform furnace. At Spectrosc 6: 125–127.Google Scholar
  37. Devi PR, Khaul AJ (1989) On-line trace metal enrichment in flow injection atomic absorption spectrometry. Quim Anal 8: 159–170.Google Scholar
  38. Devi PR, Naidu GR (1990) Enrichment of trace metals in water on activated carbon. Analyst 115: 1469–1471.Google Scholar
  39. Dugast P (1978) Contribution â l’étude de la contamination des végétaux par le plomb et le cadmium. Thèse Doct. Ing. NA, Paris.Google Scholar
  40. Ebdon L, Wilkinson JR (1987) Direct atomic spectrometric analysis by slurry atomisation. Optimisation of whole coal analysis by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. J Anal Atom’Spectrom 2: 39–44.Google Scholar
  41. Fang Z, Guo T, Welz B (1991) Determination of cadmium, lead and copper in water samples by flame atomic absorption spectrometry with preconcentration by flow-injection on-line sorbent extraction. Talanta 38: 613–619.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. FAO-WHO (1972) 16th Report on Joint FAO-WHO. Expert Committee on Food Additives. World Health Organization, Geneva.Google Scholar
  43. FAO-WHO (1986) Toxicological evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants. WHO Food Additives Series. World Health Organization, Rome.Google Scholar
  44. Fernando AR, Plambeck JA (1992) Digestion of soil samples for the determination of trace amounts of lead by differential-pulse anodic-stripping voltammetry. Analyst 117: 39–42.Google Scholar
  45. Franklin DM, Armstrong R, Chettle DR, Scott MC (1990) An improved in vivo neutron activation system for measuring kidney cadmium. Phys Med Biol 35: 1397–1408.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Friberg L, Elinder CG, Kjellström T, Nordberg GF (1985) Cadmium and Health. A Toxicological and Epidemiological Appraisal. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.Google Scholar
  47. Friel JK, Skinner C, Jackson S, Longerich H (1990) Analysis of biological reference materials prepared by microwave dissolution, using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Analyst 115: 269–273.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Gerhardsson L, Oskarsson A, Skerfving S (1994) Acid precipitation effects on trace elements and human health. Sci Total Environ 153: 237–245.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Gerritse RG (1996) Column-scale and catchment-scale transport of cadmium effect of dissolved organic matter. J Contam Hydrol 22: 145–163.Google Scholar
  50. Gomaa MN (1995) Recycling study of some heavy metals in the Egyptian aquatic ecosystem. Food Chem 54: 297–303.Google Scholar
  51. Goyer RA (1988) Lead. In: Seiler HG, Sigel H (eds) Handbook of Toxicity of Inorganic Compounds. Dekker, New York.Google Scholar
  52. Haghiri F (1973) Cadmium uptake by plants. J Environ Qual 2: 93–96.Google Scholar
  53. Haguenoer JM, Furon D (1981) Toxicologie et Hygiène Industrielles. Technique et Documentation, Paris.Google Scholar
  54. Hathcock JN, Rader JI (1994) Food additives, contaminants and natural toxins. In: Shils M, Olson J, Shike M (eds) Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease. Lea & Febiger, Malvern.Google Scholar
  55. Hoenig M, Hoeyweghen PV (1986) Alternative to solid sampling for trace metal determination by platform electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry: direct dispensing of powdered samples suspended in liquid medium. Anal Chem 58: 2614–2617.Google Scholar
  56. Ivanova E, Tsakovski S, Gentscheva G, Havezov I (1996) Anion exchange enrichment of thallium and cadmium prior to their flame atomic absorption spectrometric determination in soils. Talanta 43: 1367–1370.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Jaakkola A, Korkman J, Koski TJ (1979) The effect of cadmium contained in fertilizers on the cadmium content of vegetables. J Sci Agric Soc Finl 51: 158–162.Google Scholar
  58. Jackson AP, Alloway BJ (1991) The bioavailability of cadmium to lettuce and cabbage in soils previously treated with sewage sludges. Plant Soil 132: 179–186.Google Scholar
  59. Jing J, Logan T (1992) Effects of sewage sludge cadmium concentration on chemical extractability and plant uptake. J Environ Qual 21: 1–8.Google Scholar
  60. John MK, Vanlaerhoven CJ, Chuah HH (1972) Factors affecting plant uptake and phytotoxicity of Cd added to soils. Environ Sci Technol 6: 1005–1009.Google Scholar
  61. Johnson MS, Eaton JW (1980) Environmental contamination through residual trace metal dispersal from a derelict lead-zinc mine. J Environ Qual 9: 175–179.Google Scholar
  62. Jung MC, Thornton I (1996) Heavy metal contamination of soils and plants in the vicinity of a lead-zinc mine, Korea. Appl Geochem 11: 53–59.Google Scholar
  63. Kabata A, Dudka S (1991) Baseline data for cadmium and lead in soils and some cereals of Poland. Water Air Soil Pollut 57 /58: 723–731.Google Scholar
  64. Kemp A, Brown C (1990) Microwave digestion of carbonate rock samples for chemical analysis. Analyst 115: 1197–1199.Google Scholar
  65. Kim KH, Kim DY (1996) Heavy metal pollution in agricultural soils: measurements in the proximity of abandoned mine land sites. J Environ Sci Health 31: 783–795.Google Scholar
  66. Kingston HM, Jassie LB (1986) Microwave energy for acid decomposition at elevated temperatures and pressures using biological and botanical samples. Anal Chem 58: 2534–2541.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Kojima I, Jinno F, Noda Y, Iida C (1991) Vapour phase acid decomposition of highly pure silicas in a sealed PTFE bomb and determination of impurities by one-drop atomic spectrometry. Anal Chim Acta 245: 35–41.Google Scholar
  68. Kos V, Budic B, Hudnik V, Lobpik F, Zupan M (1996) Determination of heavy metal concentrations in plants exposed to different degrees of pollution using ICP-AES. Fresenius J Anal Chem 354: 648–652.Google Scholar
  69. Landry JC, Celardin F (1988) Métaux lourds dans les sols du Bassin Genevois: état de la question. Arch Sci Genève 41: 199–223.Google Scholar
  70. Lederer J (1984) Le Zinc en Pathologie et en Biologie. Nauwelaerts, Brussels.Google Scholar
  71. Linder MC (1985) Nutritional Biochemistry and Metabolism with Clinical Applications. Elsevier, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  72. Linnman L, Stockholm MS, Andersson A (1973) Cadmium uptake by wheat from sewage sludge used as a plant nutrient source. Arch Environ Health 27: 45–47.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Littlejohn D, Stephen SC, Ottaway JM (1985) Slurry sample introduction procedures for the analysis of foodstuffs by electrothermal atomisation atomic absorption spectrometry. Anal Proc 22: 376–378.Google Scholar
  74. López MC, Cabrera C, Gallego C, Lorenzo ML (1994) Cadmium levels in waters of Granada coast. Ars Pharm 1: 945–950.Google Scholar
  75. Lynch S, Littlejohn D (1989) Palladium as a chemical modifier for the determination of lead in food slurries by electrothermal atomisation atomic absorption spectrometry. J Anal At Spectrom 4: 157–161.Google Scholar
  76. Madrid Y, Bonilla M, Camara C (1990) Evaluation of oxidant media for the determination of lead in food slurries by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry. Analyst 115: 563–565.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Mahaffey KR, Corneliussen PE, Jelinek CF, Fiorino JA (1975) Heavy metal exposure from foods. Environ Health Perspect 12: 63–69.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Mance G (1987) Pollution Threat of Heavy Metals in Aquatic Enviroments. Elsevier, London.Google Scholar
  79. Mann LJ, Knobel L (1988) Concentrations of nine trace metals in ground waters at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Report 88–332. U.S. Geological Survey, Moscow, ID.Google Scholar
  80. Manning DC, Slavin W (1983) The determination of trace elements in natural waters using the stabilized temperature platform furnace. Appl Spectrosc 37: 1–10.Google Scholar
  81. Mata L, Perez MD, Puyol P, Calvo M (1995) Distribution of added lead and cadmium in human and bovine milk. J Food Prot 58: 305–309.Google Scholar
  82. Martin MH, Coughtrey PJ (1982) Biological Monitoring of Heavy Metal Pollution. Applied Science, New York.Google Scholar
  83. Martinez-Avila R, Carbonell V, De la Guardia M, Salvador A (1990) Slurries introduction in flow injection atomic absorption spectroscopic analysis of sewage sludges. J Assoc Off Anal Chem 73: 389–393.Google Scholar
  84. McKeague JA, Wolynetz MS (1980) Background levels of minor elements in some Canadian soils. Geoderma 24: 299–306.Google Scholar
  85. McLaughlin MJ, Palmer LT, Tiller KG, Beech TA, Smart MK (1994) Increased soil salinity causes elevated cadmium concentrations in field grown potato tubers. J Environ Qual 23: 1013–1018.Google Scholar
  86. McLaughlin MJ, Tiller KG, Naidu R, Stevens DP (1996) Review: the behavior and environmental impact of contaminants in fertilizers. Aust J Soil Res 34: 1–54.Google Scholar
  87. Mena C, Cabrera C, Lorenzo ML, Lopez MC (1996) Cadmium levels in wine, beer and other alcoholic beverages: possible sources of contamination. Sci Total Environ 181: 201–208.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. MAPA (Ministerio de Agricultura, Pesca y Alimentación) (1990) Real Decreto 1310/ 1990 de 29 de Octobre de 1990, por el que se regula la utilización de los lodos de depuraciön en el sector agrario. BOE, Madrid.Google Scholar
  89. Mingorance MD, Perez-Vazquez ML, Lachica M (1993) Microwave digestion methods for the atomic spectrometric determination of some elements in biological samples. J Anal At Spectrom 8: 853–858.Google Scholar
  90. Muhlbaier J, Stevens C, Graczyk D, Tisue T (1982) Determination of cadmium in Lake Michigan by MSID analysis or AAS following electrode position. Anal Chem 54: 496–499.Google Scholar
  91. Mukhtar S, Haswell S, Ellis A, Hawke D (1991) Application of total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry to elemental determinations in water, soil and sewage sludge samples. Analyst 116: 333–338.Google Scholar
  92. Nan Chen G (1994) Potentiometric stripping determination of lead, cadmium and zinc in wine. Am J Enol Vitic 45: 305–311.Google Scholar
  93. National Research Council (1989) Recomended Dietary Allowances. National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  94. Nieuwenhuize J, Poley-Vos CH, Van den Akker AH, Van Delft W (1991) Comparison of microwave and conventional extraction techniques for the determination of metals in soil, sediment and sludge samples by atomic spectrometry. Analyst 116: 347–351.Google Scholar
  95. Oehme FW (1978) Toxicity of Heavy Metals in the Environment. Dekker, New York. Olamson E, Cato I ( 1980 ) Chemistry and Biogeochemistry of Estuaries. Wiley-Interscience, New York.Google Scholar
  96. Pomeranz Y, Meloan CE (1994) Food Analysis: Theory and Practice. Chapman & Hall, New York.Google Scholar
  97. Pongratz R, Heumann KG (1996) Determination of monomethylcadmium in the environment by differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry. Anal Chem 68: 1262–1266.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Prasad MN (1995) Cadmium toxicity and tolerance in vascular plants. Environ Exp-Bot 35: 525–545.Google Scholar
  99. Purohit R, Devi S (1991) Separation and determination of trace amounts of zinc and cadmium by on-line enrichment in flow injection flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Analyst 116: 825–830.Google Scholar
  100. Pyle SM, Nocerino JM, Deming SN, Palasota JA, Palasota JM, Miller EL, Hillman DC, Kuharic CA, Cole WH, Fitzpatrick PM, Watson MA, Nichols KD (1996) Comparison of AAS, ICP-AES, PSA and XRF in determining lead and cadmium in soil. Environ Sci Technol 30: 204–213.Google Scholar
  101. Quemerais B, Lum KR, Lemieux C (1996) Concentrations and transport of trace metals in the St. Lawrence River. Aquat Sci 58: 52–68.Google Scholar
  102. Qiu ZC, Zhu Y, Yang JP (1988) Use of a cadmium-new cadion-emulsifier OP complex for the spectrophotometric determination of available cadmium in acidic soils. Analyst 113: 1329–133.Google Scholar
  103. Rains T, Rush T, Butler T (1982) Innovations in atomic absorption spectrophotometry with electrothermal atomization for determining lead in foods. J Assoc Off Anal Chem 65: 995–998.Google Scholar
  104. Reilly C (1980) Metal Contamination of Food. Applied Science, London.Google Scholar
  105. Rieuwerts J, Farago M (1996) Heavy metal pollution in the vicinity of a secondary lead smelter in Czech Republic. Appl Geochem 11: 17–23.Google Scholar
  106. Rincon F, Zurera G, Pozo R (1988) Lead and cadmium concentrations in red crayfish (Procambarus clarkii G.) in the Guadalquivir River marshes (Spain). Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 17: 251–256.Google Scholar
  107. Robards K, Worsfold P (1991) Cadmium: toxicology and analysis. A review. Analyst 116: 549–568.Google Scholar
  108. Robles LC, Aller AJ (1995) Determination of cadmium in biological and environmental samples by slurry electrothermal atomic-absorption spectrometry. Talanta 72: 1731–1744.Google Scholar
  109. Ruiz E, Echeandia A, Romero F (1991) Microanalytical determination of metallic constituents of river sediments. Freseniüs J Anal Chem 340: 223–229.Google Scholar
  110. Rule JH, Alden RW (1990) Cd bioavailability to three estuarine animals in relation to geochemical fractions to sediments. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 19: 878–885.Google Scholar
  111. Salim IA, Miller CJ, Howard J (1996) Sorption isotherm sequential extraction analysis of heavy metal retention in landfill liners. Soil Sci Soc Am J 60: 107–114.Google Scholar
  112. Schlemmer G, Welz B (1986) Palladium and magnesium nitrates, a more universal modifier for graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Spectrochim Acta 41B: 1157–1165.Google Scholar
  113. Schuhmacher M, Bosque M, Domingo J, Corbella J (1991) Dietary intake of lead and cadmium from foods in Tarragona province, Spain. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 46: 320–328.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Schwarz Y (1974) Trace Element Metabolism in Animals University Park Press, Baltimore.Google Scholar
  115. Seiler H, Sigel H (1988) Handbook on Toxicity of Inorganic Compounds. Dekker, New York.Google Scholar
  116. Sherlock JC (1986) Cadmium in foods and the diet. Experientia (Basel) 50: 110–114.Google Scholar
  117. Shits M, Olson J, Shiite M (1994) Modern nutrition in the health and disease. Lea & Febiger, Malvern.Google Scholar
  118. Simonoff M, Simonoff G (1991) Le Sélénium et la Vie. Masson, Paris.Google Scholar
  119. Slavin W, Carnrick G, Manning D, Pruszkowska E (1983) Recent experience with the stabilized temperature platform furnace and Zeeman background correction. At Spectrosc 4: 69–86.Google Scholar
  120. Stephen SC, Littlejohn D, Ottaway JM (1985) Evaluation of a slurry for the determination of lead in spinach by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Analyst 110: 1147–1151.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Sturgeon R, Desaulniers J, Berman S, Russell D (1982) Determination of trace metals in estuarine sediments by graphite-furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Anal Chim Acta 134: 283–291.Google Scholar
  122. Suzuki T, Sensui M (1991) Application of the microwave acid digestion method to the decomposition of rock samples. Anal Chim Acta 245: 43–48.Google Scholar
  123. Taguchi S, Yamazaki S, Yamamoto A, Urayama Y, Hata N, Kasahara I, Goto K (1988) Acid soluble membrane filter for the preconcentration and electrothermal atomisation atomic absorption spectrometric determination of cadmium in water. Analyst 113: 1695–1698.Google Scholar
  124. Tahvonen R (1996) Contents of lead and cadmium in foods and diets. Food Rev Int 12: 1–70.Google Scholar
  125. Tahvonen R, Kumpulainen J (1991) Lead and cadmiun in berries and vegetables on the Finnish market 1987–1989. Fresenius J Anal Chem 340: 242–244.Google Scholar
  126. Ure AM, Bacon JR, Berrow ML, Watt JJ (1979) The total trace element content of some Scottish soils by spark source mass spectrometry. Geoderma 22: 1–23.Google Scholar
  127. Vermeiren K, Vandecasteele C, Dams R (1990) Determination of trace amounts of cadmium, lead, copper and zinc in natural waters by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry with thermospray nebulisation, after enrichment on Chelex100. Analyst 115: 17–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Whitelaw K, Andrews MJ (1988) The effects of sewage sludge disposal to sea—the Outer Thames Estuary, U.K. Water Sci Technol 20: 183–191.Google Scholar
  129. Wong JW (1996) Heavy metal contents in vegetables and market garden soils in Hong Kong. Environ Technol 17: 407–414.Google Scholar
  130. WHO (World Health Organization) (1993) Evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants. Forty-first report of the Joint FAO-WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. WHO, Geneva.Google Scholar
  131. Xue Q, Harrison HC (1991) Effect of soil zinc, pH, and cultivar on cadmium uptake in leaf lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. crispa). Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 22: 975–991.Google Scholar
  132. Yannai S, Berdicevsky I (1995) Formation of organic cadmium by microorganisms. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 32: 209–214.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Zurera G, Estrada B, Rincon F, Pozo R (1987) Lead and cadmium contamination levels in edible vegetables. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 38: 805–812.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carmen Cabrera
    • 1
  • Eduardo Ortega
    • 2
  • María-Luisa Lorenzo
    • 1
  • María-del-Carmen López
    • 1
  1. 1.Departamento de Nutrición y Bromatología Facultad de FarmaciaUniversidad de GranadaGranadaSpain
  2. 2.Departamento de Edafología y Química Agrícola, Facultad de FarmaciaUniversidad de GranadaGranadaSpain

Personalised recommendations