Chemical Thermodynamics in Use
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For chemists thermodynamics reduces largely to the simple lesson that the spontaneous direction of a chemical reaction is forward if ΔrG < 0, backward if ΔrG > 0, and in equilibrium if ΔrG = 0. This chapter shows how geochemists, biochemists, and plain chemists apply these conclusions. One approach taken by geochemists, calculation of ΔrG as a function of pressure and temperature, is seen in the program Powell in Sec 3.1. Chemists most often use thermodynamics to describe chemical reactions in equilibrium. Section 3.2 illustrates with some examples of equilibrium calculations involving gas-phase reactions (programs Haber and Coal), acid-base titrations (the program Tcurve), and buffers (the program Acetate). Biochemists rely on ΔrG calculations to construct Gibbs energy profiles for entire schemes of biochemical reactions. Some of the special methods of biochemical thermodynamics are illustrated in Sec. 3.3 (programs Atp1, Atp2, and Biochem), and a Gibbs energy profile of the glycolysis series of reactions is plotted by the program Gprofile.
KeywordsEquilibrium Constant Activity Coefficient Maleic Acid Equilibrium Temperature Fumaric Acid
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