Facial Convexity and Posterior Divergence: The Class II Deformity

  • Harvey M. Rosen


There is little question that the Class II skeletal deformity is the most common developmental deformity that confronts surgeons. It is estimated by the United States Public Health Service that approximately 5% of North American Caucasians have some degree of mandibular deficiency. Not infrequently, underdevelopment of the lower jaw is seen in association with vertical dysplasia of the maxilla, the most common condition being vertical maxillary excess with or without anterior open bite.


Lower Face Occlusal Plane Mandibular Advancement Posterior Divergence Anterior Open Bite 
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Suggested Reading

  1. 1.
    Bell, W.H., Proffit, W.R., Chase, D.L., et al.: Mandibular Deficiency. In W.H. Bell, W.R. Proffit, and R.P. White (Eds.): Surgical Correction of Dentofacial Deformities. Philadelphia: Saunders, 1980, p. 684.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Epker, B.N. and Fish, L.C.: Essential of Treatment Planning. In Dentofacial Deformities: Integrated Orthodontic and Surgical Correction. St. Louis: Mosby, 1986, p. 97.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Rosen, H.: Occlusal plane rotation: Aesthetic enhancement in mandibular micrognathia. Plast Reconstr Surg91: 1231, 1993.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Wolfe, S.A., Hu, L., and Berkowitz, S.: In search of the harmonious face: Apollo revisited with an examination of the indications for retrograde maxillary displacement. Plast Reconstr Surg99: 1261, 1997.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York, Inc. 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Harvey M. Rosen
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Pennsylvania HospitalPhiladelphiaUSA
  2. 2.University of Pennsylvania School of MedicinePhiladelphiaUSA

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