Advertisement

Neural Networks: Cloud Parameterizations

  • Barbara A. Bailey
  • L. Mark Berliner
  • William Collins
  • Douglas W. Nychka
  • Jeffrey T. Kiehl
Part of the Lecture Notes in Statistics book series (LNS, volume 144)

Abstract

The role of clouds in the climate system is very complex and is the subject of much interest and research. Clouds interact nonlinearly with radiative, dynamical, chemical, and hydrological processes in the atmosphere on a wide range of temporal and spatial scales. Clouds play a fundamental role in controlling the amount of solar and infrared radiation available to the climate system. The radiative properties of clouds make them a key component in the energy balance of the Earth. In particular, clouds are involved in both heating and cooling in the determination of the Earth’s temperature. On average, roughly 50% of the Earth is covered by clouds. They contribute to the planet’s albedo by reflecting some incident sunlight (shortwave radiation) back to space (they also absorb some). However, they also partially block the escape of infrared radiation from below; that is, they exert a greenhouse effect on Earth. (Clouds are the primary contributors to the greenhouse effect.) They also emit some longwave radiation. Clouds also play an essential role in controlling the amount of moisture available to the climate system. Through precipitation, clouds serve as a conduit for the transfer of heat from the oceans to the atmosphere. They are also important in many chemical processes such as the absorption of water-soluble chemicals and pollutants in cloud droplets and their elimination by precipitation. See [Tre92] for further discussion.

Keywords

Cloud Cover Outgoing Longwave Radiation Hide Unit Convective Available Potential Energy Cloud Amount 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York, Inc. 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Barbara A. Bailey
    • 1
  • L. Mark Berliner
    • 2
  • William Collins
    • 3
  • Douglas W. Nychka
    • 3
  • Jeffrey T. Kiehl
    • 3
  1. 1.University of Illinois at Urbana-ChampaignUSA
  2. 2.Ohio State UniversityColumbusUSA
  3. 3.National Center for Atmospheric ResearchBoulderUSA

Personalised recommendations