Hierarchical Space—Time Dynamic Models
Virtually all atmospheric and oceanographic processes (e.g., wind, temperature, sea surface temperature, moisture) involve variability over space and time. For example, consider surface wind fields over the tropical oceans. Such fields are important factors in many processes that are of critical interest to the general public. These include tropical storm (hurricane) formation and maturation, and the development and strengthening of the El Niño-La Niña climate phenomena. One only need examine the governing partial differential equations for wind processes, or selected spatial and/or temporal averages of them, to see that mathematical and statistical descriptions of these dynamical processes depend on complicated temporal and spatial relationships. Furthermore, observations of geophysical processes typically include measurement errors and are often temporally and spatially incomplete. Both of these features can obscure the signal of interest.
KeywordsAnisotropy Covariance Assimilation Cyclone Sine
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