Subtle Nonlinear Neuromuscular Properties Are Consistent with Teleological Design Principles

  • Jack M. Winters
  • Robert E. Kearney
  • Michael P. Slawnych
  • Peter A. Huijing


The other chapters in this section address certain subtle details of neuromuscular properties, such as interaction between properties (e.g., activation and contractile force-length) and effects of fatigue (see Chapters 5 and 6, Huijing), convergence of information on motoneurons (see Chapter 2), and muscle force-length operating range variability (see Chapter 3). In general, such details may be interpreted as adding complexity to neuromusculoskeletal (NMS) models, and there is thus a natural resistance on the part of modellers to include every single observed behavior. Yet this opens the door to a criticism of models as not being sufficiently accurate, and therefore inadequate; this was a recurring theme during several of the discussions at the recent EFC on Biomechanics and Neural Control of Movement. It needs to be addressed.


Muscle Spindle Nonlinear Property Muscle Model Musculoskeletal Model Series Element 
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© Springer-Verlag New York, Inc. 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jack M. Winters
  • Robert E. Kearney
  • Michael P. Slawnych
  • Peter A. Huijing

There are no affiliations available

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