Clinical Applications of Musculoskeletal Models in Orthopedics and Rehabilitation

  • Scott L. Delp
  • Allison S. Arnold
  • Stephen J. Piazza
  • Andy Ruina


Persons with gait abnormalities frequently undergo surgical procedures to improve the alignment of their limbs, increase the efficiency of movement, and prevent the progression of deformity (Bleck 1987; Gage 1991). For example, persons with cerebral palsy who walk with excessive flexion of the knees often have their hamstrings lengthened to increase knee extension and improve the crouched posture. Excessive plantarflexion of the ankle during walking is frequently treated by surgical lengthening of the Achilles tendon. Stiff-knee gait, which may arise from abnormal activity of the rectus femoris muscle, is treated by transfer of this muscle to the posterior side of the knee. Rotational deformities are corrected by derotational osteotomies, procedures in which bones are divided and realigned to restore more normal limb rotation.


Cerebral Palsy Knee Flexion Muscle Length Swing Phase Rectus Femoris 
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© Springer-Verlag New York, Inc. 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Scott L. Delp
  • Allison S. Arnold
  • Stephen J. Piazza
  • Andy Ruina

There are no affiliations available

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