Congenital Anomalies

  • Steven F. Viegas


Congenital amputation of the upper extremity is an uncommon deformity that is transmitted sporadically by chance mutation, with no mode of genetic transmission having been identified. It occurs approximately 10 times more commonly below the elbow than above the elbow. Clinically, the appearance of the extremity proximal to the amputation will reveal atrophy of the musculature proximal to the amputation, as opposed to amputation secondary to constrictive bands, which are normal proximally. Only rarely is operative intervention required for stump revision or removal of digital remnants for bilateral belowthe-elbow amputation. Occasionally, it is necessary to perform a Krukenberg procedure on one side to convert the radius and the ulna in the forearm into a controllable pair of opposable prehensile digits.


Radial Head Club Foot Tendon Transfer Thenar Muscle Radioulnar Synostosis 
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Suggested Reading

  1. Dobyns, J. H., V. E. Wood, and L. G. Bayne. 1993. Congenital hand deformities. In: Operative hand surgery, 3rd Ed. D. P. Green, ed., 251.Google Scholar
  2. Flatt, A. E. 1994. The care of congenital hand anomalies, 2nd Ed. St. Louis: Quality Medical Publishers.Google Scholar
  3. Lister, G. D. 1994. Congenital. In: Hand surgery update, Chap. 38, 1–10. American Society for Surgery of the Hand, Englewood, CO.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Steven F. Viegas
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Hand Surgery, Department of Orthopaedic SurgeryUniversity of Texas Medical BranchGalvestonUSA

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