Advertisement

Extinction and the Evolutionary Process

  • Niles Eldredge

Abstract

Extinction is currently receiving more intense scientific scrutiny than at any time since Cuvier (1812) established its empirical reality in his Discours sur les Révolutions de la Surface du Globe. The reasons for this heightened interest are fairly clear and appear to me to be twofold: environmental concerns over mounting species loss have increased, albeit sporadically, as the twentieth century has progressed. With the millennium now fast approaching, the next episode of mass extinction, this time human induced, is fast upon us. We simply can no longer afford not to focus on extinction.

Keywords

Fossil Record Mass Extinction Extinction Event Middle Devonian High Taxon 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Reference

  1. Alvarez, L.W., W. Alvarez, F. Asaro, and H.V. Michel. 1980. Extraterrestrial cause for the Cretaceous—Tertiary extinction. Science 208:1095-1108.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Benton, M. J. 1995. Diversification and extinction in the history of life. Science 268:52-58.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Brett, C.E. and G.C. Baird. 1995. Coordinated stasis and evolutionary ecology of Silurian to Middle Devonian faunas in the Appalachian Basin. In: D.H. Erwin and R.L. Anstey, eds. New Approaches to Speciation in the Fossil Record, pp. 285-315. Columbia Uni-versity Press, New York.Google Scholar
  4. Cuvier, G. 1812. Discours sur les Révolutions de la Surface du Globe. (Originally pub-4. Extinction and the Evolutionary Process 73 lished as Vol. 1, Discours Preliminaire, Recherches sur les Ossemens Fossiles.) Deter-ville, Paris.Google Scholar
  5. Damuth, J. 1985. Selection among “species”: a formulation in terms of natural functional units. Evolution 39:1132-1146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Darwin, C. 1859. On the Origin of Species. John Murray, London.Google Scholar
  7. Eldredge, N. 1971. The allopatric model and phylogeny in Paleozoic invertebrates. Evolution 25:156-167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Eldredge, N. 1972. Systematics and evolution of Phacops rana (Green, 1832) and Phacops iowensis Delo, 1935 (Trilobita) from the Middle Devonian of North America. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 147:45-114.Google Scholar
  9. Eldredge, N. 1985a. Time Frames. Simon and Schuster, New York.Google Scholar
  10. Eldredge, N. 1985b. Unfinished Synthesis. Biological Hierarchies and Modem evolutionary Thought. Oxford University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  11. Eldredge, N. 1989. Macroevolutionary Dynamics. Species, Niches and Adaptive Peaks. McGraw-Hill, New York.Google Scholar
  12. Eldredge, N. 1991. Fossils. The Evolution and Extinction of Species. Abrams, New York.Google Scholar
  13. Eldredge, N. 1995. Reinventing Darwin. The Great Debate at the High Table of Evolutionary Theory. Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  14. Eldredge, N. and S.J. Gould. 1972. Punctuated equilibria: an alternative to phyletic gradualism. In: T.J.M. Schopf, ed. Models in Paleobiology, pp. 82-115. Freeman, Cooper, San Francisco.Google Scholar
  15. Eldredge, N. and S.N. Salthe. 1984. Hierarchy and evolution. Oxford Surveys in Evolutionary Biology 1:182-206.Google Scholar
  16. Gould, S.J. 1989. Wonderful Life. The Burgess Shale and the Nature of History. W.W. Norton, New York.Google Scholar
  17. Gould, S. J. and N. Eldredge. 1993. The majority of punctuated equilibrium. Nature 366(6452):223-227.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Jablonski, D. 1986. Background and mass extinctions: the alteration of macroevolutionary regimes. Science 231:129-133.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Lewis, H. 1966. Speciation in flowering plants. Science 152:167-172.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Newell, N.D. 1967. Revolutions in the history of life. Geolological Society of America, Special Paper 89:63-91.Google Scholar
  21. Raup, D.M. 1979. Size of the Permo-Triassic bottleneck and its evolutionary implications. Science 206:217--218.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Sepkoski, J.J.Jr., R.K. Bambach, D.M. Raup, and J.W. Valentine. 1981. Phanerozoic marine diversity and the fossil record. Nature (London) 293:435-437.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Simpson, G.G. 1953. The Major Features of Evolution. Columbia University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  24. Simpson, G.G. 1959. The nature and origin of supraspecific taxa. Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology 24:255-271.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Vrba, E.S. 1985. Environment and evolution: alternative causes of the temporal distribu-tion of evolutionary events. South African Journal of Science 81:229-236.Google Scholar
  26. Vrba, E.S. 1993. The pulse that produced us. Natural History 102(5):47-51.Google Scholar
  27. Vrba, E.S. and N. Eldredge. 1984. Individuals, hierarchies and processes: towards a more complete evolutionary theory. Paleobiology 10:146-171.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Niles Eldredge

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations