Issues in Semantic Network Development and Utilization

  • Steven Evans
Part of the Computers and Medicine book series (C+M)


The origins of the semantic network methodology for PACE arose from the author’s doctoral studies on the development of Semantic Operators Producing Heuristically Interesting Sentential Types (SOPHIST) system (Evans, 1969). This 1969 development was in turn based on prior research in related studies begun in 1967 (Evans, 1967). Such studies were forerunners of what were later described as semantic trees by Quillian (Quillian, 1966). Since both Evans and Quillian were later in the same doctoral program at the same university, it is not surprising that the conceptual environment should foster commonality in this research area.


Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Semantic Network Bacterial Pneumonia Pace System High White Blood Cell Count 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Buchanan, B.G., & Shortliffe, E.H. (1984) Rule-Based Expert Systems. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.Google Scholar
  2. Campbell, C. (1978) Nursing Diagnosis and Nursing Intervention. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  3. Carpenito, L. (1983) Nursing Diagnosis: Application to Clinical Practice. Philadelphia: Lippincott.Google Scholar
  4. Evans, S. (1967) Representation of Knowledge and Meaning with Directed Nets. Boulder: University of Colorado.Google Scholar
  5. Evans, S. (1969) The SOPHIST System. Pittsburgh: Carnegie-Mellon University.Google Scholar
  6. Evans, S. (1974a) Report to the Ford Foundation on the Educational Assembly System Project. Pittsburgh: Carnegie-Mellon University.Google Scholar
  7. Evans, S. (1974b) The structure of instructional knowledge: An operational model, Instructional Science, 2:421–450.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Evans, S. (1975) Institutionalizing Change—A Proposal and Plan for the Health Sciences Center. Omaha: Creighton University.Google Scholar
  9. Evans, S. (1977a) A Taxonomy for the Health Sciences. Omaha: Creighton University.Google Scholar
  10. Evans, S. (1977b) The Total—System Design of Instruction. Omaha: Creighton University.Google Scholar
  11. Evans, S. (1982) Differentiation of the information needs of heath professionals using expert systems. In Proceedings of the First IEEE Computer Society International Conference on Medical Computer Science/Computational Medicine (Philadelphia).Google Scholar
  12. Evans, S. (1983) A computer-based educational consultant in geriatrics for health professionals. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Systems Science in Health–Social Services for the Elderly and the Disabled (Montreal).Google Scholar
  13. Evans, S. (1984a) Implementation of a computer-based test generator to evaluate health professions continuing education. In Proceedings of the First Annual Conference of the American Association for Medical Systems and Informatics, Vol. 1, Washington, DC, October 1982. Reprinted with permission in Journal of Medical Systems. Google Scholar
  14. Evans, S. (1984b) Implementation of a computer-based testwriting consultant. In Proceedings of the Eighth Symposium on Computer Applications in Medical Care, G.S. Cohen, Ed. Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE Computer Society Press, pp. 918–921.Google Scholar
  15. Evans, S. (1984c) Preliminary results with the design and implementation of an academic management information system. In Proceedings of the Eighth Symposium on Computer Applications in Medical Care, G.S. Cohen, Ed. Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE Computer Society Press, pp. 999–1002.Google Scholar
  16. Evans, S. (1985) Decision support systems for the outpatient office: Two examples of medical expert systems. In Primary Care, Vol. 12, No. 3, J. Zimmer, Ed. Philadelphia: Saunders, pp. 445–458.Google Scholar
  17. Evans, S., Lynch, H.T., & Fusaro, R.M. (1995) xxx Clinical results using informatics to evaluate hereditary cancer risk. In Proceedings of the Nineteenth Symposium on Computer Applications in Medical Care, R.M. Gardner, Ed. Philadelphia: Hanley & Belfus Medical Publishers, pp. 834–838.Google Scholar
  18. Gordon, M. (1982) Nursing Diagnoses: Process and Application. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  19. Harmon, P., & King, D. (1985) Expert systems. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  20. Hofstadter, D.R. (1979) Gödel, Escher, Bach: An Eternal Golden Braid. New York: Basic Books, pp. 663–664.Google Scholar
  21. I Didn’t Know I Could Do That on CompuServe. (1994) Columbus, OH: CompuServe, Inc.Google Scholar
  22. Jenny, J. (1989) Classifying nursing diagnoses. A self care approach. Nursing and Health Care, 10(2):82–88.Google Scholar
  23. Liebowitz, J. (1988) Introduction to Expert Systems. Santa Cruz, CA: Mitchell Publishing.Google Scholar
  24. Michel, A., Dudeck, J., & Prokosch, H.U. (1989) Concepts for a medical data dictionary. In Proceedings of MEDINFO 89, Barry Barber, Dexian Cao, Dulie Qin, Gustav Wagner, Eds. Amsterdam: Elsevier, pp. 805–808.Google Scholar
  25. Minsky, M., Ed. (1968) Semantic Information Processing.Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  26. North American Nursing Diagnosis Association. (1994). Classification of Nursing Diagnoses: Proceedings of the Tenth Conference, R.M. Carroll-Johnson, ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott.Google Scholar
  27. Orem, D.E. (1985) Nursing: Concepts of Practice, 3rd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  28. Quillian, M.R. (1966) Semantic Memory. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Carnegie-Mellon University, Pittsburgh.Google Scholar
  29. Rosenblatt, F. (1958) The perception: A probabilistic model for information storage and organization in the brain. Psychological Review, November, 65:386–407.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Shapiro, S.C. (1971) A Data Structure for Semantic Information Processing. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Wisconsin, Madison.Google Scholar
  31. Soda, J.F. (1995) Knowledge Representation: Logical, Philosophical, and Computational Foundations. Boston: PWS Publishing.Google Scholar
  32. Sussman, G.J. (1975) A Computer Model of Skill Acquisition. New York: American Elsevier.Google Scholar
  33. Tuttle, M.S., Nelson, S.J., Fuller, L.F., Sherertz, D.D., Erlbaum, M.S., Sperzel, W.D., Olson, N.E., & Suarez-Munist, O.N. (1992) The semantic foundations of the UMLS metathesaurus. In Medinfo 92, K.C. Lun et al., Eds. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishers.Google Scholar
  34. Winston, Patrick. (1977) Artificial Intelligence. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Steven Evans
    • 1
  1. 1.Oncor Med Genetic Risk AssessmentOmahaUSA

Personalised recommendations