Leukocytospermia, Oxidative Stress, and Sperm Function

  • R. John Aitken


Defective sperm function is not only the most prevalent, defined cause of human infertility, but it is one that, until recently, was extremely difficult to treat.’ Part of this difficulty is derived from incomplete understanding of the factors contributing to male infertility. Environmental conditions have been implicated, notably in the proposed role of estrogens in precipitating the decline in sperm counts observed in men in several European countries during the past half century.2,3 Genetic factors have also been implicated, particularly in cases of severe oligospermia or nonobstructive azoospermia where microdeletions in the Y chromosome or sex chromosome abnormalities such as XXY have been observed.4,5 Even in cases of obstructive azoospermia, genetic factors may be involved, as evidenced by the association between congenital absence of the vas deferens and mutations in the cystic fibrosis gene.6


Sperm Motility Seminal Plasma Semen Quality Sperm Function Male Reproductive Tract 
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© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1997

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  • R. John Aitken

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