Testicular Biopsy and Vasography

  • Ira D. Sharlip
  • Seck L. Chan


Testis biopsy is performed to identify the quality of spermatogenesis in patients who may have obstructive male infertility or to identify the presence of testicular sperm cells, which may be aspirated and used for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Testis biopsy may also be used to identify the presence of round spermatids, which may be aspirated and used for round spermatid nuclear injection (ROSNI).


Sertoli Cell Leydig Cell Seminiferous Tubule Round Spermatid Ejaculatory Duct 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Wong TW, Straus FH, Warner NE. Testicular biopsy in the study of male infertility. I. Testicular causes of infertility. Arch Pathol 1973; 95: 151–159.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Camatini M, Franchi E, Faleri M. Ultrastructure of spermiogenesis in men with congenital absence of the vasa deferentia. Arch Androl 1979; 3: 93–99.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Re M, Carpino F, Familiari G, et al. Ultrastruc-tural characteristics of idiopathic spermatidic arrest. Arch Androl 1979; 2: 283–289.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Narbaitz R, Tolnai G, Jolly E, et al. Ultrastruc-tural studies on testicular biopsies from eighteen cases of hypospermatogenesis. Fertil Steril 1978; 30: 679–686.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Clermont Y. The cycle of seminiferous epithelium in man. Am J Anat 1963; 112: 35–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Steinberger E, Tjioe DY. A method for quantitative analysis of human seminiferous epithelium. Fertil Steril 1968; 19: 959–961.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Zukerman Z, Rodriguez-Rigau LJ, Weiss D, et al. Quantitative analysis of the seminiferous epithelium in human testicular biopsies, and the relation of spermatogenesis to sperm density. Fertil Steril 1978; 30: 448–455.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Silber SJ, Rodriguez-Rigau LJ. Quantitative analysis of testicle biopsy: determination of partial obstruction and prediction of sperm count after surgery for obstruction. Fertil Steril 1981; 36: 480–485.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Clausen OPF, Purvis K, Hansson V. Quantitation of spermatogenesis by flow cytometric DNA measurements. Int J Androl 1978; l(suppl 2 ): 513–522.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Abyholm T, Clausen OP. Clinical evaluation of DNA flow cytometry of fine-needle aspirates from testes of infertile man. Int J Androl 1981; 4: 505–514.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Chan SL, Lipshultz LI, Schwartzendruber D. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) flow cytometry: a new modality for quantitative analysis of testicular biopsies. Fertil Steril 1984; 41: 485–487.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kaufman DG, Nagler HM. Aspiration flow cytometry of the testes in the evaluation of spermatogenesis in the infertile male. Fertil Steril 1987; 48: 287–291.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hellstrom WJG, Telsuk H, Deitch AD, et al. Comparison of flow cytometry to routine testis biopsy in male infertility. Urology 1990; 35: 321–326.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Pinkel D, Dean P, Lake D, et al. Flow cytometry of mammalian sperm—progress in DNA and morphology measurement. J Histochem Cytoehem 1979; 27: 353–358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Heller CG, Clermont Y. Kinetics of the germinal epithelium in man. Recent Prog Horm Res 1964; 20: 545–553.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Wong TW, Straus FH, Jones TM, et al. Pathological aspects of the infertile testis. Urol Clin North Am 1978; 5: 503–530.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hagedoorn JP, David TE. Fine structure of the seminiferous tubules after vasectomy in man. Physiologist 1974; 17: 236.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Gupta I, Dhawan S, Goel GD. Low fertility in vasovasostomy males and its possible immunologic mechanism. Int Fertil 1975; 20: 183–191.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Joshi KY, Ramedo ZN, Sachder K. Effects of vasectomy in testis. Int Surg 1972; 57: 711–713.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Oswin Perera BMA. Changes in the structure and function of the testis and epididymides in vasectomized rams. Fertil Steril 1978; 29: 354–359.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kubota R. Electron microscopic studies on the testis after vasectomy in rats and men. Jpn J Urol 1969; 60: 373–397.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Coburn M, Wheeler TM, Lipshultz LI. Testicular biopsy: its use and limitations. Urol Clin North Am 1987; 14: 551–561.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Jow WW, Steckel J, Schlegel PN, et al. Motile sperm in human testis biopsy specimens. J Androl 1993; 14: 194–198.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Barnes FL, Zouves C, Rodriguez H, et al. Sperm retrieval from testes biopsy with fertilization and pregnancy following ICSI. Abstract, Pacific Coast Fertil Society Meeting, April 19,1996, Indian Wells, California.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Carpino F, Re M, Familiari G, et al. Ultrastruc-tural study on the Sertoli cell in germinal aplasia. (Sertoli-cell-only syndrome). Int J Nephrol Urol Androl 1980; 1: 89–92.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Goluboff ET, Stifelman MD, Fisch H. Ejacula-tory duct obstruction in the infertile male. Urology 1995; 45: 925–931.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Chan SL, Cunningham GR, Lipshultz LI. Testicular and post-testiculaar causes of male infertility. In: deVere White R, ed. Aspects of Male Infertility. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins; 1982: 116–152.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ira D. Sharlip
  • Seck L. Chan

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations