Development and Function of the Fetal Endocrine System

  • Tom E. Porter
Part of the Contemporary Endocrinology book series (COE, volume 9)


Pregnancy is associated with numerous changes in maternal endocrine function and development of the fetal endocrine system. Although some intercommunication exists between the maternal and fetal endocrine systems, the placenta serves as an effective barrier to many potential maternal-fetal hormonal interactions. This chapter will focus on the ontogeny of fetal hormone production, regulation of fetal hormone synthesis, and fetal requirements for hormone secretion. Each of the major endocrine systems will be examined. Although the discussion will concentrate on evidence obtained during human fetal development, supplemental information from studies of fetal development in sheep and rodents, the two most widely used experimental models for fetal endocrine function, will be examined.


Growth Hormone Luteinizing Hormone Follicle Stimulate Hormone Fetal Development Late Gestation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Takor-Takor T, Pearse AGE (1975) Neuroectodermal origin of avian hypothalamo-hypophyseal complex: the role of the ventral neural ridge. J Embryol Exp Morphol 34:311–326.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Couly G, LeDouarin NM (1985) Mapping of the early neural primordium in quail-chick chimeras. I. Developmental relationships between placodes, facial ectoderm, and prosencephalon. Dev Biol 110:422–439.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Couly G, Le Douarin NM (1988) Mapping of the early neural primordium in quail-chick chimeras. II. The prosencephalic neural plate and neural folds: implications for the genesis of cephalic human congenital abnormalities. Dev Biol 120:198–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ikeda H, Suzuki J, Sasano N, Niizuma H (1988) The development and morphogenesis of the human pituitary gland. Anat Embryol 178:327–336.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Simmons DM, Voss JW, Ingraham HA, Holloway JM, Broide RS, Rosenfeld MG, Swanson LW (1990) Pituitary cell phenotypes involve cell-specific Pit-1 mRNA translation and synergistic interactions with other classes of transcription factors. Genes Dev 4:695–711.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Asa SL, Kovacs K, Laszlo FA, Domokos I, Ezrin C (1986) Human fetal adenohypophysis: histologic and immunocytochemical analysis. Neuroendocrinology 43:308–316.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Begeot M, Dubois MP, Dubois PM (1977) Growth hormone and ACTH in the pituitary of normal and anencephalic fetuses: immunocytochemical evidence for hypothalamic influences during development. Neuroendocrinology 24:208–220.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Frawley LS, Hoeffler JP, Boockfor FR (1985) Functional maturation of somatotropes in fetal rat pituitaries: analysis by reverse hemolytic plaque assay. Endocrinology 116:2355–2360.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Baker BL, Yu YY (1977) An immunocytochemical study of human pituitary mammotropes from fetal life to old age. Am J Anat 148:217–239.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hoeffler JP, Boockfor FR, Frawley LS (1985) Ontogeny of prolactin cells in neonatal rats: initial prolactin secretors also release growth hormone. Endocrinology 117:187–195.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Watanabe YG, Daikoku S (1979) An immunohistochemical study on the cytogenesis of adenohypophysial cells in fetal rats. Dev Biol 68:557–567.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Sheng HZ, Zhadanov AB, Mosinger B Jr, Fujii T, Bertuzzi S, Grinberg A, Lee EJ, Huang SP, Mahon KA, Westphal H (1996) Specification of pituitary cell lineages by the LIM homeobox gene Lhx3. Science 272:1004–1007.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Borrelli E, Heyman RA, Arias C, Sawchenko PE, Evans RM (1989) Transgenic mice with inducible dwarfism. Nature 339:538–541.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kastin AJ, Gennser G, Arimura A, Miller MC III, Schally AV (1968) Melanocyte-stimulating and corticotrophic activities in human foetal pituitary glands. Acta Endocrinol 58:6–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Carr GA, Jacobs RA, Young IR, Schwartz J, White A (1995) Development of adrenocorticotropin-(1–39) and precursor peptide secretory responses in the fetal sheep during the last third of gestation. Endocrinology 136:5020–5027.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Voss JW, Rosenfeld MG (1992) Anterior pituitary development: short tales from dwarf mice. Cell 70:527–530.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Economides DL, Nicolaides KH, Linton EA, Perry LA, Chard T (1988) Plasma cortisol and adrenocorticotropin in appropriate and small for gestational age fetuses. Fetal Ther 3:158–164.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Robinson PM, Silver M, McMillen IC (1991) Effect of adrenalectomy or long term cortisol or adrenocorticotropin (ACTH)-releasing factor infusion on the concentration and molecular weight distribution of ACTH in fetal sheep plasma. Endocrinology 129(4): 1942–1950.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Rose JC, Turner CS, Ray D, Rawashdeh N (1988) Evidence that cortisol inhibits basal adrenocorticotropin secretion in the sheep fetus by 0.70 gestation. Endocrinology 123:1307–1313.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Wood CE, Rudolph AM (1983) Negative feedback regulation of adrenocorticotropin secretion by cortisol in ovine fetuses. Endocrinology 112:1930–1936.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Apostolakis EM, Longo LD, Veldhuis JD, Yellon SM (1992) Dissociation of pulsatile cortisol and adrenocorticotropin secreton in fetal sheep during late gestation. Endocrinolgy 130(5): 2571–2578.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Rose JC, Meis PJ, Urban RR, Greiss FC Jr (1982) In vivo evidence for increased adrenal sensitivity to adrenocorticotropin-(l-24) in the lamb fetus late in gestation. Endocrinology 111:80–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Angevine DM (1938) Pathological anatomy of hypophysis and adrenals in anencephaly. Arch Pathol 26:507–518.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Young MC, Laurence KM, Hughes IA (1989) Relationship between fetal adrenal morphology and anterior pituitary function. Hormone Res 32:130–135.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kaplan SL, Grumbach MM (1976) The ontogenesis of human foetal hormones. II. Luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). Acta Endocrinol 81:808–829.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Mesiano S, Hart CS, Heyer BW, Kaplan SL, Grumbach MM (1991) Hormone ontogeny in the ovine fetus. XXVI. A sex difference in the effect of castration on the hypothalamic-pituitary gonadotropin unit in the ovine fetus. Endocrinology 129:3073–3079.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Beck-Peccoz P, Padmanabhan V, Baggiani AM, Cortelazzi D, Buscaglia M, Medri G, Marconi AM, Pardi G, Beitins IZ (1991) Maturation of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal function in normal fetuses: circulating levels of gonadotropins, their common α-subunit and free testosterone, and discrepancy between immunological and biological activities of circulating follicle-stimulating hormone. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 73:525–532.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Clements JA, Reyes FI, Winter JS, Faiman C (1976) Studies of human sexual development. III. Fetal pituitary and serum and amniotic fluid concentrations of LH, CG, and FSH. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 42:919CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Rabinovici J, Goldsmith PC, Robert VJ, Vaughan J, Vale W, Jaffe RB (1991) Localization and secretion of inhibin/activin subunits in the human and subhuman primate fetal gonads. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 73:1141–1149.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Rabinovici J, Jaffe RB (1990) Development and regulation of growth and differentiation in human and subhuman primate fetal gonads. Endocr Rev 11:532–557.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Clark SJ, Hauffa BP, Rodens KP, Styne DL, Kaplan SL, Grumbach MM (1989) Hormone ontogeny of the ovine fetus. XIX. The effect of a potent luteinizing hormone-releasing factor agonist on gonadatropin and testosterone release in the fetus and neonate. Pediatr Res 25:347–352.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Albers N, Bettebdorf M, Herrmann H, Kaplan SL, Grumbach MM (1993) Hormone ontogeny in the ovine fetus, XXVII. Pulsatile and copulsatile secretion of luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, growth hormone, and prolactin in late gestation: a new method for the analysis of copulsatility. Endocrinology 132:701–709.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Kaplan SL, Grumbach MM, Aubert ML (1976) The ontogenesis of pituitary hormones and hypothalamic factors in the human fetus: Maturation of central nervous system regulation of anterior pituitary function. Recent Prog Horm Res 32:161–243.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Massa G, de Zegher F, Vanderschueren-Lodeweyckx M (1992) Serum levels of immunoreactive inhibin, FSH and LH in human infants at preterm and term birth. Biol Neonate 61:150–155.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Baker TG, Scrimgeour JB (1980 Development of the gonad in normal and anencephalic human fetuses. J Reprod Fertil 60:193–199.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Zondek LH, Zondek T (1983) Ovarian hilar cells and testicular Leydig cells in anencephaly. Biol Neonate 43:211–219.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Fisher DA, Dussault J (1974) Development of the mammalian thyroid gland, In: Handbook of Physiology: Endocrinology III. The Thyroid (Greer MA, Solomon DH, eds.), American Physiological Society, Washington DC, pp 21–38.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Thorpe-Beeston JG, Nicolaides KH, Felton CV, Butler J, McGregor AM (1991) Maturation of the secretion of thyroid hormone and thyroid-stimulating hormone in the fetus. N Engl J Med 324:532–536.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Klein AH, Oddie TH, Parslow M (1982) Developmental changes in pituitary-thyroid function in the human fetus and newborn. Early Hum Dev 6:321–330.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Kawaoi A, Tsuneda M (1986) Effects of thyroidectomy and administration of propylthiouracil (PTU) or thyrotropin (TSH) to pregnant rats on the functional development of the fetal thyroid gland: an immunohistochemical study. Endocrinol Jpn 33:835–841.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Tonooka N, Greer MA (1978) Evidence that control of fetal thyrotropin secretion is independent of both the fetal and maternal hypothalamus. Endocrinology 102:852–858.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Rodriguez-Garcia M, Jolin T, Santos A, Perez-Castillo A (1995) Effect of perinatal hypothyroidism on the developmental regulation of rat pituitary growth hormone and thyrotropin genes. Endocrinology 136:4339–4350.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Bona G, Aquili C, Ravanini P, Gallina MR, Cigolotti AC, Zaffaroni M, Paniccia P, Mussa F (1994) Growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-I and somatostatin in human fetus, newborn, mother plasma and amniotic fluid. Panminerva Med 36:5–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Salardi S, Orsini LF, Cacciari E, Righetti F, Donati S, Mandini M, Cicognani A, Bovicelli L (1991) Growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-I, insulin and C-peptide during human fetal life: in-utero study. Clin Endocrinol 34:187–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Kishi K, Hirashiba M, Hasegawa Y (1991) Gestational profiles of rat placental lactogen-II (rPL-II) and growth hormone (GH) in maternal and fetal serum, amniotic fluid, and placental tissue. Endocrinol Jpn 38:589–595.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Bassett NS, Gluckman PD (1986) Pulsatile growth hormone secretion in the ovine fetus and neonatal lamb. J Endocrinol 109:307–312.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    de Zegher F, Daaboul J, Grumbach MM, Kaplan SL (1989) Hormone ontogeny in the ovine fetus and neonate. XXII. The effect of somatostatin on the growth hormone (GH) response to GH-releasing factor. Endocrinology 124:1114–1117.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Gluckman PD, Grumbach MM, Kaplan SL (1981) The neuroendocrine regulation and function of growth hormone and prolactin in the mammalian fetus. Endocr Rev 2:363–395.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Gluckman PD, Uthne K, Styne DM, Kaplan SL, Rudolph AM, Grumbach MM (1979) Hormone ontogeny in the ovine fetus. IV. Serum somatomedin activity in the fetal and neonatal lamb and pregnant ewe: correlation with maternal and fetal growth hormone, prolactin, and chorionic somatomammotropin. Pediatr Res 13:194–196.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Goodyer CG, Branchaud CL, Lefebvre Y (1993) Effects of growth hormone, GH-releasing factor and somatostatin on GH secretion from early to midgestation human fetal pituitaries. J Clin Endocrinol Met 76:1259–1264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Bauer MK, Breier BH, Harding JE, Veldhuis JD, Gluckman PD (1995) The fetal somatotropic axis during long term maternal undernutrition in sheep: evidence for nutritional regulation in utero. Endocrinology 136:1250–1257.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Stevens D, Alexander G (1986) Lipid deposition after hypophysectomy and growth hormone treatment in the sheep fetus. J Dev Physiol 8:139–145.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Cooke PS, Yonemura CU, Russell SM, Nicoll CS (1986) Growth and differentiation of fetal rat intestine transplants: dependence on insulin and growth hormone. Biol Neonate 49:211–218.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Otonkoski T, Knip M, Wong I, Simell O (1988) Effects of growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor I on endocrine function of human fetal islet-like cell clusters during long-term tissue culture. Diabetes 37:1678–1683.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Sandier S, Anderson A, Korsgren O, Tollemar J, Peterson B, Groth CG, Hellerstrom C (1987) Tissue culture of human fetal pancreas: growth hormone stimulates the formation and insulin production of islet-like cell clusters. J Clin Endocrinol Met 65:1154–1158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Scharfmann R, Basmaciogullari A, Czernichow P (1990) Effect of growth hormone and glucose on rat islet cells replication using 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine incorporation. Diabetes Res 15:137–141.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Fukaya T, Furuhashi N, Shinkawa O, Kono H, Takahashi T, Suzuki M (1984) The human fetal prolactin and estradiol levels, and their correlationship. Tohoku J Exp Med 143:87–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Suganuma N, Seo H, Yamamoto N, Kikkawa F, Oguri H, Narita O, Tomoda Y, Matsui N (1989) The ontogeny of growth hormone in the human fetal pituitary. Am J Obst Gynecol 160:729–733.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Root AW (1976) Growth hormone and prolactin in fetus. Prog Clin Biol Res 10:107–126.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Aubert MJ, Grumbach MM, Kaplan SL (1975) The ontogenesis of human fetal hormones. III. Prolactin. J Clin Invest 56:155–164.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    McMillen IC, Jenkin G, Robinson JS, Thorburn GD (1983) Concentrations of prolactin in the plasma of fetal sheep and in amniotic fluid in late gestation and during dexamethasone-induced parturition. J Endocrinol 99:107–114.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    SeronFerre M, Monroe SE, Hess D, Parer JT, Jaffe RB (1979) Prolactin concentrations in the monkey fetus during the last third of gestation. Endocrinology 104:1243–1246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Yuen BH, Mincey EK (1987) Human chorionic gonadotropin, prolactin, estriol, and dehydroepi-androsterone sulfate concentrations in cord blood of premature and term newborn infants: relationship to the sex of the neonate. Am J Obst Gynecol 156:396–400.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Vergara M, Parraguez VH, Riquelme R, Figueroa JP, Llanos AJ, Seron-Ferre M (1989) Ontogeny of the circadian variation of plasma prolactin in sheep. J Dev Physiol 11:89–95.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Houghton DC, Young IR, McMillen IC (1995) Evidence for hypothalamic control of the diurnal rhythms in prolactin and melatonin in the fetal sheep during late gestation. Endocrinology 136:218–223.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Rod E, Robuschi G, Alboni A, d’Amato L, Montermini M, Gardini E, Salvi M, Borciani E, Dal F Aglio E, Bisi S (1986) Human foetal prolactin but not thyrotropin secretion is decreased by bromocriptine. Acta Endocrinol 112:35–41.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Thomsett MJ, Marti-Henneberg C, Gluckman PD, Kaplan SL, Rudolph AM, Grumbach MM (1980) Hormone ontogeny in the ovine fetus. VIII. The effect of thyrotropin-releasing factor on prolactin and growth hormone release in the fetus and neonate. Endocrinology 106:1074–1078.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Leontic EA, Tyson JE (1977) Prolactin and fetal osmoregulation: water transport across isolated human amnion. Am J Physiol 232:R124–R127.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Pullano JG, Cohen-Addad N, Apuzzio JJ, Ganesh VL, Josimovich JB (1989) Water and salt conservation in the human fetus and newborn. I. Evidence for a role of fetal prolactin. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 69:1180–1186.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Mendelson CR, Boggaram V (1991) Hormonal control of the surfactant system in the fetal lung. Ann Rev Physiol 53:415–440.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Parker CR, MacDonald PC, Guzick DS, Porter JC, Rosenfeld CR, Hauth JC (1989) Prolactin levels in umbilical cord blood of human infants: relation to gestational age, maternal complications, and neonatal lung function. Am J Obst Gynecol 161:795–802.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Schellenberg J-C, Liggins GC, Manzai M, Kitterman JA, Lee CC (1988) Synergistic hormone effects on lung maturation in fetal sheep. J Appl Physiol 65:94–100.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Robillard JE, Nakamura KT (1988) Hormonal regulation of renal function during development. Biol Neonate 53:201–211.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Wittkowski WH, Schulze-Bonhage AH, Bockers TM (1992) The pars tuberalis of the hypophysis: A modulator of the pars distalis?. Acta Endocrinol 126:285–290.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Yokoh Y (1968) The early development of the nervous system in man. Acta Anat (Basel) 71:492–518.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Ervin MG, Kullama LK, Ross MG, Leake RD, Fisher DA (1993) Vasopressin receptors and effects during fetal development. Regul Pep 45:203–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Skowsky WR, Fisher DA (1977) Fetal neurohypophyseal arginine vasotocin in man and sheep. Pediatr Res 11:627–630.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Swaab DF, Hofman MA, Honnebier MB (1990) Development of vasopressin neurons in the human suprachiasmatic nucleus in relation to birth. Brain Res Dev Brain Res 52:289–293.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Weitzman RE, Fisher DA, Robillard J, Erenberg A, Kennedy R, Smith F (1978) Arginine vasopressin response to an osmotic stimulus in the fetal sheep. Pediatr Res 12:35–38.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Bell RJ, Congiu M, Hardy KJ, Wintour EM (1984) Gestation dependent aspects of the response of the ovine fetus to the osmotic stress induced by maternal water deprivation. Q J Exp Physiol 69:187–195.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Gomez RA, Norwood VF (1995) Developmental consequences of the renin-angiotensin system. Am J Kidney Dis 26:409–425.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Lee HU, Campbell DJ, Habener JF (1987) Developmental expression of the angiotensinogen gene in rat embryos. Endocrinology 121:1335–1342.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Gomez RA, Cassis L, Lynch KR, Chevalier RL, Wilfong N, Carey RM, Peach MJ (1988) Fetal expression of the angiotensinogen gene. Endocrinology 123:2298–2302.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Kalinyak JE, Hoffman AR, Perlman AJ (1991) Ontogeny of angiotensinogen mRNA and angiotensin II receptors in rat brain and liver. J Endocrinol Invest 14:647–653.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Everett AD, Chevalier RL, Gomez RA (1991) Hepatic angiotensinogen gene regulation in the fetal and pregnant rat. Pediatr Res 30:252–255.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Richoux AS, Amsaguine S, Grignor G, Bouhnik J, Menrad J, Corvol P (1987) Earliest renin-containing cell differentation during ontogenesis in the rat. Histochemistry 88:41–46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Pupilli C, Gomez RA, Tuttle JB, Peach MJ, Carey RM (1991) Spatial association of renincontaining cells and nerve fibers in developing rat kidney. Pediatr Nephrol 5:690–695.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Gomez RA, Chevalier RL, Sturgill BC, Johns DW, Peach MJ, Carey RM (1993) Maturation of the intrarenal renin distribution in Wister-Kyoto rats. J Hypertens 4:S31–S33.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Celio MR, Groscurth P, Inagami T (1985) Ontogeny of renin immunoreactive cells in the human kidney. Anat Embryol 173:149–155.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Taylor GM, Peart WS, Porter KA (1986) Concentration and molecular forms of active and inactive renin in human fetal kidney, amniotic fluid and adrenal gland: Evidence for reninangiotensin system hyperactivity in 2nd trimester of pregnancy. J Hypertens 4:121–129.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Fisher DA, Polk DH (1989) Development of the thyroid. Baillieres Clin Endocrinol Metab 3:627–652.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Klein AH, Fisher DA (1980) Thyrotropin releasing hormone stimulated pituitary and thyroid gland responsiveness and 3, 5, 3′-triiodothyronine supression in fetal and neonatal lambs. Endocrinology 106:697–701.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Fisher DA, Klein AH (1981) Thyroid development and disorders of thyroid function in the newborn. N Engl J Med 304:702–712.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Klein AH, Oddie TH, Fisher DA (1978) Effect of parturition on serum iodothyronine concentrations in fetal sheep. Endocrinology 103:1453–1457.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Morreale de Escobar G, Obregon MJ, Ruiz de Ona C, Escobar del Rey F (1988) Transfer of thyroxine from the mother to the rat fetus near term: effects on brain 3,5,3′-triiodothyronine deficiency. Endocrinology 122:1521–1531.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Polk DH, Wu SY, Fisher DA (1986) Serum thyroid hormone and tissue 5′-monodeiodinase activity in acutely thyroidectomized newborn lambs. Am J Phys 14:E151–E155.Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Polk DH, Wu SY, Wright C (1988) Ontogeny of thyroid hormone effect on tissue 5′-monodeiodinase activity in fetal sheep. Am J Phys 17:E337–E341.Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Obregon MJ, Mallol J, Pator R (1984) L-Thyroxine and 3,5,3′-triiodothyronine in rat embryos before onset of fetal thyroid function. Endocrinology 114:305–307.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Letarte J, Guyda H, Dussault JH (1980) Clinical, biochemical and radiological features of neonatal hypothyroid infants, In: Neonatal Screening (Dussault JH, Burrow GN, eds.), Raven, New York, pp 225–236.Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    O’Brien WF (1991) Use of TRH in the fetus to advance lung maturity. Adv Exp Med Biol 299:243–250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Erenberg A, Rhodes ML, Weinstein MM, Kennedy RL (1979) The effect of fetal thyroidectomy on ovine fetal lung maturation. Pediatr Res 13:230–235.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Maclsaac RJ, Heath JA, Rodda CP, Moseley JM, Care AD, Martin TJ, Caple IW (1991) Role of the fetal parathyroid hormone-related protein in the regulation of placental transport of calcium, magnesium and inorganic phosphate. Reprod Fertil Dev 3:447–457.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    LeroyerAlizon E, David L, Anast CS, Dubois PM (1981) Immunocytochemical evidence for parathyroid hormone in human fetal parathyroid glands. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 52:513–516.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Seki K, Furuya K, Makimura N, Mitsui C, Hirata J, Nagata I (1994) Cord blood levels of calcium-regulating hormones and osteocalcin in premature infants. J Perinatal Med 22:189–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Abbas SK, Ratcliffe WA, Moniz C, Dixit M, Caple IW, Silver M, Fowden A, Care AD (1994) The role of parathyroid hormone-related protein in calcium homeostasis in the fetal pig. Exp Physiol 79:527–536.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Wadsworth JC, Kronfeld DS, Ramberg Jr CF (1982) Parathyrin and calcium homeostasis in the fetus. Biol Neonate 41:101–109.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Pitkin RM, Reynolds WA, Williams GA, Kawahara W, Bauman AF, Hargis GK (1980) Maternal and fetal parathyroid hormone responsiveness in pregnant primates. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 51:1044–1047.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Rodda CP, Kubota M, Heath JA, Ebeling PR, Moseley JM, Care AD, Caple IW, Martin TJ (1988) Evidence for a novel parathyroid hormone-related protein in fetal lamb parathyroid glands and sheep placenta: comparisons with a similar protein implicated in humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy. J Endocrinol 117:261–271.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Abbas SK, Pickard DW, Illingworth D, Storer J, Purdie DW, Moniz C, Dixit M, Caple IW, Ebeling PR, Rodda CP, Martin TJ, Care AD (1990) Measurement of parathyroid hormone-related protein in extracts of fetal parathyroid glands and placental membranes. J Endocrinol 124:319–325.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Takeuchi A, Okano T, Sekimoto H, Kobayashi T (1994) The enzymatic formation of 1 alpha, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 from 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in the liver of fetal rats. Comp Biochem Phys 109:1–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Ross R, Care AD, Robinson JS, Pickard DW, Weatherley AJ (1980) Perinatal 1,25-dihydroxy-cholecalciferol in the sheep and its role in the maintenance of the transplacental calcium gradient. J Endocrinol 87:17P,18P.Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Ross R, Halbert K, Tsang RC (1989) Determination of the production and metabolic clearance rates of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in the pregnant sheep and its chronically catheterized fetus by primed infusion technique. Pediatr Res 26:633–638.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Johnson JA, Grande JP, Roche PC, Sweeney WE, Avner ED, Kumar R (1995) 1-alpha, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 receptor ontogenesis in fetal renal development. Am J Physiol 269:F419–F428.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Shameley DR, Buffenstein R, Veale G, Pettifor JM (1993) Maternal vitamin D status has no effect on the ontogeny of calcium-binding proteins in the duodenum, kidney and cerebellum of fetal mice. J Endocrinol 139:473–478.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Ross R, Florer J, Halbert K, Mclntyre L (1989) Characterization of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 receptors and in vivo targeting of [3H]-1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in the sheep placenta. Placenta 10:553–567.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Phillipe M (1983) Fetal catecholamines. Am J Obstet Gynecol 146:840–855.Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Liggins GC (1994) The role of cortisol in preparing the fetus for birth. Reprod Fertil Dev 6:141–150.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Pepe GJ, Albrecht ED (1990) Regulation of the primate fetal adrenal cortex. Endocr Rev 11:151–171.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Challis JRG, Brooks AN (1989) Maturation and activation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function in fetal sheep Endocr Rev 10:182–204.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Liggins GC, Fairclough RJ, Grimes SA, Kendall JZ, Knox BS (1973) The mechanism of initiation of parturition in the ewe. Recent Prog Horm Res 29:111–159.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Slack JMW (1995) Developmental biology of the pancreas. Development 121:1569–1580.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Schaeffer LD, Wilder ML, Williams RH (1973) Secretion and content of insulin and glucagon in human fetal pancreas slices in vitro. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 143:314–319.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Sperling MA (1994) Carbohydrate metabolism: insulin and glucagon, In: Maternal-Fetal Endocrinology, 2nd ed. (Tulchinsky D, Little AB, eds.), WB Saunders, Philadelphia, pp. 379–400.Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Hellerstrom C, Swenne I (1991) Functional maturation and proliferation of fetal pancreatic beta cells. Diabetes 2:89–93.Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Simpson AM, Tuch BE (1995) Control of insulin biosynthesis in the human fetal beta cell. Pancreas 11:48–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Otonkoski T, Anderson S, Simell O (1993) Somatostatin regulation of beta-cell function in the normal human fetuses and in neonates with persistent hyperinsulinemic hypogylcemia. J Clin Endocrinol Met 76:184–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Haqq CM, King CY, Ukiyama E, Falsafi S, Haqq TN, Donahoe PK, Weiss MA (1994) Molecular basis of mammalian sexual determination: activation of mullerian inhibiting substance gene expression by SRY. Science 226:1494–1499.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Voutilainen R (1992) Differentiation of the Fetal Gonad. Horm Res 38(suppl 2):66–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Huhtaniemi I (1994) Fetal testis—a very special endocrine organ. Eur J Endocrinol 130:25–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tom E. Porter

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations