Alternative Treatment Approaches to Early Stage or Unresectable Hepatocellular Carcinoma Confined to the Liver

  • Francesco Izzo
  • Francesco Fiore
  • Carlo De Werra
  • Steven A. Curley
Part of the M.D. Anderson Solid Tumor Oncology Series book series (MDA)


As noted in Chapter 2, most patients diagnosed with hepatocellular cancer (HCC) are not candidates for resection. In some patients unresectability is based on the presence of extrahepatic metastasis at the time of diagnosis. Many more patients with HCC confined to the liver are not candidates for resection because of large tumor size, multicentricity, adjacency or direct invasion to major blood vessels, or concomitant cirrhosis with inadequate functional hepatic reserve.


Radiofrequency Ablation Transcatheter Arterial Embolization Percutaneous Ethanol Injection Microwave Ablation Metastatic Liver Tumor 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Francesco Izzo
  • Francesco Fiore
  • Carlo De Werra
  • Steven A. Curley

There are no affiliations available

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