• J. Patrick Reilly


Electrical forces are vital for the functioning of living things, from the metabolism of individual cells to human consciousness derived from the activity of the brain. When electric currents are artificially introduced into a living organism, these natural forces can be activated or modified. The result is either detrimental or beneficial, depending on the circumstances. The term electric shock is generally used to describe the response of the body to inadvertent electrical exposure, and the consequences of electric shock are usually considered undesirable. However, the biological mechanisms responsible for electric shock may also be activated in a controlled fashion for beneficial medical purposes.


Electrical Stimulation Electric Shock Thermal Perception Return Electrode Stimulus Waveform 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. Patrick Reilly
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Applied Physics LaboratoryJohns Hopkins UniversityUSA
  2. 2.Metatec AssociatesSilver SpringUSA

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