Neonatal Glucose Metabolism

  • Richard M. Cowett
  • Hussien M. Farrag

Abstract

While the fetus is completely dependent on its mother for glucose and other nutrient transfer across the placenta, the adult is completely independent, especially one who is neither pregnant nor diabetic. The neonate is considered to be in a transition between the complete dependence of the fetus and the complete independence of the adult. The neonate must become independent after birth, balancing between glucose deficiency and excess to maintain euglycemia. The dependence of the conceptus on the mother for continuous substrate delivery in utero contrasts with the variable and intermittent exogenous oral intake that is the hallmark of the neonatal period and beyond. Development of carbohydrate homeostasis results from a balance between the specific morbidities to which the neonate is subject, developing hormonal, enzymatic, neural regulation, and substrate availability. Maturation of neonatal homeostasis is influenced by the integrity of the specific pathways of intermediary metabolism important in glucose metabolism (see Chapters 6 to 9, 29, and 31). The heterogeneity that is the hall-mark of neonatal glucose metabolism is illustrated by the multiplicity of conditions producing or associated with neonatal hypo- and hyperglycemia. The maintenance of euglycemia especially in the sick or low birth weight neonate is difficult, which reinforces the concept that the neonate is vulnerable to carbohydrate disequilibrium. This topic has been the subject of a number of recent evaluations.1–10

Keywords

Catheter Pyruvate Dexamethasone Alanine Fructose 

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Richard M. Cowett
  • Hussien M. Farrag

There are no affiliations available

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