Advertisement

Motility Update

  • Jean-Luc Gatti
Part of the Serono Symposia USA book series (SERONOSYMP)

Abstract

Although evolution has put strong selective pressure on ensuring that individuals have healthy, functioning gametes, at least 15% of human couples have fertility problems. The infertility can be due to either partner, but fécondation failure in the male partner occurs in one third of the cases ( 1 ). A large number of different causes can lead to this male infertility, but the most striking ones are those that affect the mobility of the sperm because the main function of this cell is to deliver the male nuclear package to the ovocyte. These cases of infertility can be treated by subzonal insemination or intracytoplasmic injection (2-4), with the risk that the genetic defect will be transmitted to the offspring.

Keywords

Cytoplasmic Dynein Fibrous Sheath Sperm Flagellum Dynein Heavy Chain Cell BioI 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Bourgereon T, Barbeaux S, McElreavy K, Fellous M. La génétique de la stérilitémasculine. Med Sci 1996;11:1–VIII.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Wolf JP, Feneux D, Escalier D, Rodrigues D, Frydman R, Jouannet P. Pregnancy after subzonal insemination with spermatozoa lacking outer dynein arms. J Reprod Fertil 1993;97:487–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Vandervorst M, Tournaye H, Camus M, Nagy ZP, Van Steirteghem A, Devroey P. Patient with absolutely immotile and intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Hum Reprod 1997;12:2429–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Papadimas J, Tarlatzis BC, Bili H, et al. Therapeutic approach of immotile cilia syndrome by intracytoplasmic sperm injection: a case report. Fertil Steril 1997;67:562–65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Witman GB, Wilkerson CG, King SM. The biochemistry, genetic and molecular biology of flagellar dynein. In: Hyam JS, Lloyd CW, editors. Microtubules. New York: Wiley-Liss, 1994:229–49.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Dutcher SK. Flagellar assembly in two hundred and fifty easy to follow steps. Trends Genet 1995;11:398–404.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Gatti JL, Dacheux JL. Molecular basis of axonemal movement. Front Endocrinol (Serono Symposia) 1995;11:53–72.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Gibbons IR. The role of dynein in microtubule based motility. Cell Struct Funct 1996;21:331–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Brokaw CJ. Control of flagellar bending: a new agenda based on dynein diversity. Cell Motil Cytoskeleton 1994;28:199–204.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Cosson J. A moving image of flagella: news and views on the mechanisms involved in axonemal beating. Cell Biol Int 1996;20:83–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lindemann CB, Kanous KS. A model for flagellar motility. Int Rev Cytol 1997;173:1–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Brokaw CJ. Transient disruptions of the axonemal structure and microtubule sliding during bend propagation by ciona sperm flagella. Cell Motil 1997;37:346–62.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Allan V. Motor proteins: a dynamic duo. Curr Biol 1996;6:630–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Vallée RB, Sheetz MR Targeting of motor proteins. Science 1996;271:1539–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Zheng Y, Wong ML, Alberts B, Mitchinson T. Nucleation of microtubule assembly by a gamma-tubulin-containing ring complex. Nature 1995;378:578–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Morritz M, Braunfield MB, Sedat JW, Alberts B, Agard DA. Microtubule nucleation by gamma-tubulin-containing rings in the centrosome. Nature 1995;378:6380.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Song YH, Mandelkow E. The anatomy of flagellar microtubules: polarity, seam, junctions, and lattice. J Cell Biol 1995;128:81–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Yang ZH, Gallicano GI, Yu QC, Fuchs E. An unexpected localization of basonuclin in the centrosome, mitochondria and acrosome of developing spermatids. J Cell Biol1997;137:657–69.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hrudka F, Betsch JM, Kenney RM. Anomalies of centriolar derivatives manifest in spermatic flagella and respiratory cilia of the stallion. Arch Androl 1991;27:161–75.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Navara SC, Simerly C, Zoran S, Schatten G. The sperm centrosomue during fertilization in mammals: implication for fertility and reproduction. Reprod Fertil Dev 1995;7:747–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Wilson PG, Borisy GG. Evolution of the multitubulin hypothesis. BioEssays 1997;19:451–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Plessman U, Weber K. Mammalian sperm tubulin: an exceptionally large number of variants based on several post-translational modifications. J Protein Chem 1997;16:385–90.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Multigner L, Pignot-Paintrand I, Saoudi Y, et al. The A and B tubules of the outer doublets of sea urchin sperm axonemes are composed of different tubulin variants. Biochemistry 1996;35:10862–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Goldsmith M, Yarbrough L, Van der Kooy D. Mechanics of motility: distinct dynein-binding domains on alpha and beta tubulin. Biochem Cell Biol 1995;73:665–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Gagnon C, White D, Cosson J, et al. The polyglutamylated lateral chain of alphatubulin plays a key role in flagellar motility. J Cell Sci 1996;109:1545–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Cosson J, White D, Huitorel P, et al. Inhibition of flagellar beat frequency by a new anti-beta-tubulin antibody. Cell Motil 1996;35:100–12.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Mazumdar M, Mikami A, Gee MA, Vallée RB. In vitro motility from recombinant dynein heavy chain. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1996;93:6552–56.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Koonce MR Identification of a microtubule binding domain in a cytoplasmic dynein heavy chain. J Biol Chem 1997;272:19714–18.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Holwill ME, Foster GF, Hamasaki T, Satir P. Biophysical aspects and modelling of ciliary motility. Cell Motil Cytoskeleton 1995;32:114–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Takada S, Kamiya R. Beat frequency difference between the two flagella of Chlamydomonas depends on the attachment site of outer dynein arms on the outer doublet microtubules. Cell Motil Cytoskeleton 1997;36:68–75.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Kozminsky KG, Beech PL, Rosenbaum JL. The Chlamydomonas kinesin-like Fla 10 is involved in motility associated with the flagellar membrane. J Cell Biol 1995;131:1517–27.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Morris RL, Scholley JM. Heterotrimeric Kinesin II is required for the assembly of motile 9 + 2 ciliary axonemes on sea urchin embryos. J Cell Biol 1997;138:1009–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Fox LA, Sawin KE, Sale WS. Kinesin related proteins in eukaryotic flagella. J Cell Sei 1994;107:1545–50.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Piperno G, Mead K, Henderson S. Inner dynein arms but not outer dynein arms require the activity of kinesin homologue protein KHP1(FLA1O) to reach the distal part of flagella in Chlamydomonas. J Cell Biol 1996;133:371–79.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Piperno G, Mead K. Transport of a novel complex in the cytoplasmic matrix of Chlamydomonas flagella. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1997;94:4457–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Henson JH, Cole DG, Roesener CD, Capuano S, Mendola RJ, Scholey JM. The heterotrimeric motor protein kinesin-II localizes to the midpiece and the flagellum of sea urchin and sand dollar sperm. Cell Motil 1997;38:29–37. Stephens RE. Ciliogenesis in sea urchin embryos a subroutine in the program of development. Bioessays 1995;17:331-40.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Bloch MA, Johnson KA. Identification of a molecular chaperone in the eukaryotic flagellum and its localisation to the site of microtubule assembly. J Cell Sci 1995;108:3541–45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Eddy EM. Chauvinist genes of male germ cells. Reprod Fertil Dev 1995;7:695–704.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Dix DJ. Hsp 70 expression and function during spermatogenesis. Cell Stress Chaperones 1997;2:73–77.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Frey E, Brokaw CJ, Omoto CK. Reactivation at low ATP distinguishes among classes of paralyzed flagella mutants. Cell Motil 1997;38:91–97.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Takada S, Kamiya R. Functional reconstitution of Chlamydomonas outer dynein arms from alpha beta and gamma subunits: requirement of a third factor. J Cell Biol 1994;126:737–45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Koutoulis A, Pazour GJ, Wilkerson CG, et al. The Chlamydomonas reinhardtii ODA3 gene encodes a protein of the outer dynein arm docking complex. J Cell Biol 1997;17:1069–80.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Smith EF, Lefebvre PA. PF20 gene product contains WD repeats and localizes to the intermicrotubule bridges in Chlamydomonas flagella. Mol Biol Cell 1997;8:455–67.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    King SM, Marchese Ragona SP, Parker SK, Detrich HW, 3rd. Inner and outer arm axonemal dyneins from the Antarctic rockcod Notothenia coriiceps. Biochemistry 1997;36:1306–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Porter ME, Knott JA, Myster SH, Farlow SJ. The dynein gene family in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Genetics 1996;144:569–85.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Gatti J-L, King SM, Moss AG, Witman GB. Outer arm dynein from trout spermatozoa. Purification, polypeptide composition and enzymatic properties. J Biol Chem 1989;264:11450–57.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    King SM, Gatti J-L, Moss AG, Witman GB. Outer arm dynein from trout spermatozoa: substructural organization. Cell Motil 1990;16:266–78.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    King SM, Patel-King RS. Identification of a Ca(2+) binding light chain within Chlamydomonas outer arm dynein. J Cell Sci 1995;108:3757–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    King SM, Patel-King RS. The M(r) = 8,000 and 11,000 outer arm dynein light chains from Chlamydomonas flagella have cytoplasmic homologues. J Biol Chem 1995;270:11445–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Patel-King RS, Benashaki SE, Harrison A, King SM. Two functional thioredoxins containing redox sensitive vicinal dithiols from the Chlamydomonas outer dynein arm. J Biol Chem 1996;271:6283–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    King SM, Barbarese E, Dillman JF III, Patel King RS, Carson JH, Pfister KK. Brain cytoplasmic and flagellar outer arm dyneins share a highly conserved Mr 8,000 light chain. J Biol Chem 1996;271:19358–66.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Phillis R, Statton D, Caruccio P, Murphey RK. Mutations in the 8 kDa dynein light chain gene disrupt sensory axon projections in the Drosophila imaginai CNS. Development 1996;122:2955–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Benashski SE, Harrison A, Patel-King RS, King SM. Dimerization of the highly conserved light chain shared by dynein and myosin V. J Biol Chem 1997;272:20929–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Patel-King RS, Benashski SE, Harrison A, King SM. A Chlamydomonas homologue of the putative murine t complex distorder Tctex 2 is an outer arm dynein light chain. J Cell Biol 1997;137:1081–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    King SM, Dillman JF, 3rd, Benashski SE, Lye RJ, Patel King RS, Pfister KK. The mouse t complex encoded protein Tctex 1 is a light chain of brain cytoplasmic dynein. J Biol Chem 1996;271:32281–87.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Olds-Clarke P. Models for male infertility: the t haplotypes. Rev Reprod 1997;2:157–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    King SM, Patel-King RS, Wilkerson CG, Witman GB. The 78,000 M(r) intermediate chain of Chlamydomonas outer arm dynein is a microtubule binding protein. J Cell Biol 1995;131:399–409.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Wilkerson CG, King SM, Koutoulis A, Pazour GJ, Witman GB. The 78,000 M(r) intermediate chain of Chlamydomonas outer arm dynein is a WD repeat protein required for arm assembly. J Cell Biol 1995;129:169–78.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Ogawa K, Kamiya R, Wilkerson CG, Witman GB. Interspecies conservation of outer arm dynein intermediate chain sequences defines two intermediate chain subclasses. Mol Biol Cell 1995;6:685–96.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Gagnon C, White D, Huitorel P, Cosson J. A monoclonal antibody against the dynein IC1 peptide of sea urchin spermatozoa inhibits the motility of sea urchin, dinoflagellate, and human flagellar axonemes. Mol Biol Cell 1994;5:1051–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Piperno G. Regulation of dynein activity within Chlamydomonas flagella. Cell Motil 1995;32:103–5.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Kato-Minoura T, Hirono M, Kamiya R. Chlamydomonas inner arm dynein mutant, ida5, has a mutation in an actin encoding gene. J Cell Biol 1997;137:649–56.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Piperno G, Luck DJ. An actin like protein is a component of axonemes from Chlamydomonas flagella. J Biol Chem 1979;254:2187–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    LeDizet M, Piperno G. ida4-l, ida4-2, and ida4-3 are intron splicing mutations affecting the locus encoding p28, a light chain of Chlamydomonas axonemal inner dynein arms. Mol Biol Cell 1995;6:713–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Gingras D, White D, Garin J, et al. Purification, cloning, and sequence analysis of a Mr = 30,000 protein from sea urchin axonemes that is important for sperm motility. Relationship of the protein to a dynein light chain. J Biol Chem 1996;271:12807–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 65.
    LeDizet M, Piperno G. The light chain p28 associates with a subset of inner dynein arm heavy chains in Chlamydomonas axonemes. Mol Biol Cell 1995;6:697–711.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 66.
    Kastury K, Taylor WE, Shen R, et al. Complementary deoxyribonucleic acid cloning and characterization of a putative human axonemal dynein light chain gene. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1997;82:3047–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 67.
    Gibbons IR, Gibbons BH, Mocz G, Asai DJ. Multiple nucleotide-binding sites in the sequence of dynein beta heavy chain. Nature 1991;352:640–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 68.
    Ogawa K. Four ATP-binding sites in the midregion of the beta heavy chain of dynein. Nature 1991;352:643–45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 69.
    Wilkerson CG, King SM, Witman GB. Molecular analysis of the gamma heavy chain of Chlamydomonas flagellar outer arm dynein. J Cell Sci 1994;107:497–506.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 70.
    Mitchell DR, Brown KS. Sequence analysis of the Chlamydomonas alpha and beta dynein heavy chain genes. J Cell Sci 1994;107:635–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 71.
    Mitchell DR, Brown KS. Sequence analysis of the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii flagellar alpha dynein gene. Cell Motil 1997;37:120–26.Google Scholar
  73. 72.
    Mocz G, Gibbons IR. Phase partition analysis of nucleotide binding to axonemal dynein. Biochemistry 1996;35:9204–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 73.
    Asai DJ, Criswell PG. Identification of new dynein heavy chain genes by RNA directed polymerase chain reaction. Methods Cell Biol 1995;47:579–85.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 74.
    Tanaka Y, Zhang Z, Hirokawa N. Identification and evolution of new dynein-like protein sequence in rat brain. J Cell Sci 1995;108:1883–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 75.
    Vaughan KT, Mikami A, Paschal BM, et al. Multiple mouse chromosomal loci for dynein based motility. Genomics 1996;36:29–38.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 76.
    Chapelin C, Duriez B, Magnino F, Goossens M, Escudier E, Amselem S. Isolation of several human axonemal dynein heavy chain genes: genomic structure of the catalytic site, phylogenetic analysis and chromosomal assignment. FEBS Lett 1997;412:325–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 77.
    Mikami A, Paschal BM, Mazumdar M, Vallée RB. Molecular cloning of the retrograde transport motor cytoplasmic dynein (MAP1C). Neuron 1993;10:787–96.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 78.
    Criswell PS, Ostrowski LE, Asai DJ. A novel cytoplasmic dynein heavy chain: expression of DHClb in mammalian ciliated epithelial cells. J Cell Sci 1996;109:1891–98.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 79.
    Vaisberg EA, Grissom PM, Mclntosh JR. Mammalian cells express three distinct dynein heavy chains that are localized to different cytoplasmic organelles. J Cell Biol 1996;133:831–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 80.
    Gagnon C. Extraction and properties of dynein from bull spermatozoa. Methods Enzymol 1986;134:318–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 81.
    Baccetti B, Burrini AG, Colodel G, et al. Comparative observations on mammalian dyneins. In: Baccetti B, editor. Comparative spermatology 20 years after. New York: Raven Press, 1992:321–32.Google Scholar
  83. 82.
    Gatti JL, Nicolle JC, Dacheux JL. Characterisation of boar sperm dynein heavy chains by UV vanadate dependent photocleavage. Biol Cell 1994;82:203–l0.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 83.
    Marchese Ragona SP, Gagnon C, White D, Belles-Iles M, Johnson KA. Structure and mass analysis of 12 S and 19 S dynein obtained from bull sperm. Cell Motil 1987;8:366–74.Google Scholar
  85. 83.
    Yoshida T, Katsuta K, Takanari H, Izutsu K. Analysis of mammalian dynein using antibodies against A polypeptides of sea urchin flagellar dynein. Exp Cell Res 1989;184:440–48.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 84.
    Gatti JL, Dacheux JL. Immunological cross reaction between sperm dynein heavy chains from different species. Reprod Nutr Dev 1996;36:213–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 85.
    Vera JC, Brito M, Zuvic T, Burzio LO. Polypeptide composition of rat sperm outer dense fibers. J Biol Chem 1984;259:5970–77.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 86.
    Fouquet JP, Kann ML. The cytoskeleton of mammalian spermatozoa. Biol Cell 1994;81:89–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 87.
    Lindemann CB. Functional significance of the outer dense fibers of mammalian sperm examined by computer simulations with the geometric clutch model. Cell Motil 1996;34:258–70.Google Scholar
  90. 88.
    Feneux D, Serres C, Jouannet P. Sliding spermatozoa: a dyskinesia responsible for human infertility? Fertil Steril 1985;44:508–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 89.
    Serres C, Feneux D, Jouanet P. Abnormal distribution of the periaxonemal structures in a human sperm flagellar dyskinesia. Cell Motil 1986;6:68–76.Google Scholar
  92. 90.
    Kim YH, de-Kretser DM, Temple-Smith PD, Hearn MT, McFarlane JR. Isolation and characterization of human and rabbit sperm tail fibrous sheath. Mol Hum Reprod 1997;3:307–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 91.
    Escalier D, Gallo JM, Schrevel J. Immunochemical characterization of a human sperm fibrous sheath protein, its developmental expression pattern, and morphogenetic relationships with actin. J Histochem Cytochem 1997;45:909–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 92.
    Paranko J, Yagi A, Kuusisto M. Immunocytochemical detection of actin and 53 kDa polypeptide in the epididymal spermatozoa of rat and mouse. Anat Rec 1994;240:516–27.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 93.
    Trè LL, Kierszenbaum AL. Sak57, an acidic keratin initially present in the spermatid manchette before becoming a component of paraaxonemal structures of the developing tail. Mol Reprod Dev 1996;44:395–407.Google Scholar
  96. 94.
    Si Y, Okuno M. The sliding of the fibrous sheath through the axoneme proximally together with microtubule extrusion. Exp Cell Res 1993;208:170–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 95.
    Burmester S, Hoyer-Fender S. Transcription and translation of the outer dense fiber gene (Odfl) during spermiogenesis in the rat. A study by in situ analyses and poly-some fractionation. Mol Reprod Dev 1996;45:10–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 96.
    Shao X, Tarnasky HA, Schalles U, Oko R, van der Hoorn FA. Interactional cloning of the 84-kDa major outer dense fiber protein Odf84. Leucine zippers mediate associations of Odf84 and Odf27. J Biol Chem 1997;272:6105–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 97.
    Brohmann H, Pinnecke S, Hoyer Fender S. Identification and characterization of new cDNAs encoding outer dense fiber proteins of rat sperm. J Biol Chem 1997;272:10327–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 98.
    Carrera A, Gerton GL, Moss SB. The major fibrous sheath polypeptide of mouse sperm: structural and functional similarities to the A-kinase anchoring proteins. Dev Biol 1994;165:272–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 99.
    Mei X, Singh IS, Erlichman M, Orr GA. Cloning and characterization of a testis specific, developmentally regulated A-kinase-anchoring protein (TAKAP-80) present on the fibrous sheath of rat sperm. Eur J Biochem 1997;246:425–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 100.
    Pariset-C, Weinman S. Differential localization of two isoforms of the regulatory subunit RII alpha of cAMP-dependent protein kinase in human sperm: biochemical and cytochemical study. Mol Reprod Dev 1994;39:415–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 101.
    MacLeod J, Mei X, Erlichman J, Orr G A. Association of the regulatory subunit of a type II cAMP-dependent protein kinase and its binding proteins with the fibrous sheath of rat sperm flagellum. Eur J Biochem 1994;225:107–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 102.
    Leclerc P, de Lamirande E, Gagnon C. cAMP-dependent regulation of protein ty-rosine phosphorylation in relation to human sperm capacitation and motility. Biol Reprod 1996;55:684–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 103.
    Carrera A, Moos J, Ning XP, et al. Regulation of protein tyrosine phosphorylation in human sperm by a calcium/calmodulin-dependent mechanism: identification of A kinase anchor proteins as major substrates for tyrosine phosphorylation. Dev Biol 1996;180:284–96.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 104.
    Vijarayaghavan S, Trautman KD, Goueli SA, Carr DW. A tyrosine-phosphorylated 55-kDa motility associated bovine sperm protein is regulated by cAMP and calcium. Biol Reprod 1997;56:1450–57.Google Scholar
  107. 105.
    Vijarayaghavan S, Goueli SA, Davey MP, Carr DW. Protein kinase A-anchoring inhibitor peptides arrest mammalian sperm motility. J Biol Chem 1997;272:4747–52.Google Scholar
  108. 106.
    Hamasaki T, Barkalow K, Satir P. Regulation of ciliary beat frequency by a dynein light chain. Cell Motil Cytoskeleton 1995;32:121–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 107.
    Howard DR, Habermacher G, Glass DB, Smith EF, Sale WS. Regulation of Chlamy-domonas flagellar dynein by an axonemal protéine kinase. J Cell Biol 1994;127:1683–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 108.
    Westhoff D, Kamp G. Glyeeraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase is bound to the fibrous sheath of mammalian spermatozoa. J Cell Sci 1997;110:1821–29.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 109.
    Escalier D, David G. Pathology of the cytoskeleton of the human sperm flagellum: axonemal and peri-axonemal anomalies. Biol Cell 1984;50:37–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 110.
    Afzelius BA. Situs inversus and ciliary abnormalities. What is the connection? Int J DevBiolll1995;39:839–44.Google Scholar
  113. 111.
    Supp DM, Witte DP, Potter SS, Brueckner M. Mutation of an axonemal dynein affects left-right asymmetry in inversus viscerum mice. Nature 1997;389:963–66.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 112.
    Andrews KL, Nettesheim P, Asai DJ, Ostrowski LE. Identification of seven rat axonemal dynein heavy chain genes: expression during ciliated cell differentiation. Mol Biol Cell 1996;7:71–79.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 113.
    Gepner J, Hays TS. A fertility region on the Y chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster encodes a dynein microtubule motor. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1993;90:11132–36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 114.
    King SJ, Dutcher SK. Phosphoregulation of an inner dynein arm complex in Chlamy-domonas is altered in phototactic mutant strains. J Cell Biol 1997;136:177–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jean-Luc Gatti

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations