Sociopolitical Dynamics

  • Alan Miller
Part of the Springer Series on Environmental Management book series (SSEM)


Environmental problem solving is a collective effort requiring sustained cooperation between many different kinds of people. Sometimes this cooperation is achieved without incident, but more commonly there is conflict and confrontation between protagonists who “face one another in a spirit of exasperation, talking past each other in mutual incomprehension… a dialogue of the blind talking to the deaf”1 (p. 33). As we have seen, one of the main reasons for this maladaptive behavior is the collision of incompatible personality types. However, this is only part of the story because individual behavior is, in turn, controlled by a variety of social pressures that, at times, compel us to behave in ways that are inconsistent with our wishes or personal inclinations. Thus, we are embedded in a nested series of social groups, each of which imposes a set of constraints on our behavior. While these social rules and obligations may constrain our individual agency, they serve to structure our lives in such a way as to make collective action, such as problem solving, possible. The influence of these social institutions on problem solving is, therefore, a crucial feature in understanding the barriers to adaptive change. In what follows, I discuss the effect of sociopolitical factors on problem solving in work groups, organizations, and, finally, within the broader society. Much of the discussion focuses on conflict within each of these levels of social orga-nization, especially power struggles among those who wish to control events. Thus, this chapter deals with the structure and dynamics of problem-solving systems, particularly conflict and cooperation at the intragroup, organizational, and intergroup levels.


Natural Resource Public Participation Environmental Justice Social Defense Forest Policy 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Cotgrove, S. 1982. Catastrophe or cornucopia: The environment politics and the future. Chichester: Wiley.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Orr, D. 1992. Ecological literacy: Education and the transition to a postmodern world. Albany: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Vallentyne, J. 1974. Limnology and education in the next decade. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 31:513–519.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Hackman, J. and C. Morris. 1975. Group tasks, group interaction process, and group performance effectiveness: A review and proposed integration. In Advances in experimental social psychology Vol. 8, ed. L. Berkowitz, 45–99. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Luszki, M. 1958. Interdisciplinary team research: Methods and problems. Washington, D.C.: National Training Laboratories.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Van Dyne, G. 1972. Organization and management of an integrated ecological research pro-gram. In Mathematical models in ecology ed. J. Jeffers, 111–172. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Leckie, G. 1975. Interdisciplinary research in the university setting. Center for Settlement Studies, Occasional Paper No. 9, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Barmark, J., and G. Wallen. 1981. The development of an interdisciplinary project. In The social process of scientific investigations Sociology of the sciences yearbook volume IV 1980 ed. K. Knorr, R. Krohn, and R. Whitley, 221–235. Dordrecht, Holland: D. Reidel Publishing Company.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Cuff, W. 1983. An evaluation of the Port Hacking Estuary Project from the viewpoint of Applied Science. In Synthesis and modelling of intermittent estuaries ed. W. Cuff and M. Tomczak, 273–292. Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Savory, A. 1988. Holistic resource management. Washington, D.C.: Island Press.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Neck, C., and C. Manz. 1994. From groupthink to teamthink: Toward the creation of constructive thought patterns in self-managing work teams. Human Relations 47:929–951.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Guzzo, R., and M. Dickson. 1996. Teams in organizations: Recent research on performance and effectiveness. Annual Review of Psychology 47:307–338.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Nutt, R. 1990. Making tough decisions: Tactics for improving managerial decision making. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Dryzek, J. 1990. Discursive democracy: Politics policy and political science. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Fischer, F. 1990. Technocracy and the politics of expertise. Newbury Park, Calif.: Sage.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Merrifield, J. 1989. Putting the scientists in their place: Participatory research in environmental and occupational health. New Market, Tenn.: Highlander Research and Education Center.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Jackson, S. 1992. Team composition in organizational settings: Issues in managing an increasingly diverse work force. In Group processes and productivity ed. S. Worchel, W. Wood, and J. Simpson, 138–173. Newbury Park: Sage.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Garcia, M. 1989. Forest Service experience with interdisciplinary teams developing integrated resource management plans. Environmental Management 13:583–592.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Janssen, W., and R. Goldsworthy. 1996. Multidisciplinary research for natural resource management: Conceptual and practical implications. Agricultural Systems 51:259–279.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Meridith, D., N. Hatfield, and R. Harvey. 1996. A nontraditional team approach: Making it work in traditional bureaucracy. Journal of Forestry 94:17–20.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kennedy, J. 1991. Integrating gender diverse and interdisciplinary professionals into traditional U.S. Department of Agriculture-Forest Service culture. Society and Natural Resources 4:165–176.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Magill, A. 1988. Natural resource professionals: The reluctant public servants. The Environmental Professional 10:295–303.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Domey, R. 1989. The professional practice of environmental management. New York: Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Petulla, J. 1987. Environmental protection in the United States. San Francisco: San Francisco Study Center.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Nesmith, C., and P. Wright. 1995. Gender, resources, and environmental management. In Resource and environmental management in Canada: Addressing conflict and uncertainty ed. B. Mitchell, 80–98. Toronto: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Tarnapol, P. 1991. Women and the Society of American Foresters. Women and Natural Resources 12:24–27.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Otero, R., and N. Brown. 1996. Increasing minority participation in forestry and natural resources: The MINFORS Conference. Journal of Forestry 94:4–7.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Dearden, P., and L. Berg. 1993. Canada’s National Parks: A model of administrative penetration. The Canadian Geographer 37:194–211.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Porter, T. 1997. Crown land now a battleground: N.B. natives may try to stop forestry operations. Daily Gleaner 1 7 November, Fredericton, N.B., Canada.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Sexton, K., K. Olden, and B. Johnson. 1993. “Environmental justice”: The central role of research in establishing a credible scientific foundation for informed decision making. Toxicology and Industrial Health 9:685–727.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Szasz, A. 1994. Ecopopulism: toxic waste and the movement for environmental justice. Minneapolis: University of Minneapolis Press.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Luloff, A. 1995. Regaining vitality in the forestry profession: A sociologists perspective. Journal of Forestry 93:6–9.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Schnaiberg, A., and K. Gould. 1994. Environment and society: The enduring conflict. New York: St. Martin’s Press.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Good, T. 1986. Budworm and Bafflegab. New Maritimes June: 14.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Klein, J. 1990. Interdisciplinarity: History theory , and practice. Detroit: Wayne State University Press.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Hollingshead, A. 1996. Information suppression and status persistence in group decision making: The effects of communication media. Human Communication Research 23:193–220.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Miller, A. 1984. Professional collaboration in environmental management: The effectiveness of expert groups. Journal of Environmental Management 18:365–388.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Belbin, R. 1981. Management teams: Why they succeed or fail. London: Heinemann.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Janis, I. 1989. Crucial decisions: Leadership and policymaking in crisis management. New York: The Free Press.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Kowitz, A., and T. Knutson. 1980. Decision making in small groups: The search for alternatives. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Jehn, K. 1995. A multimethod examination of the benefits and detriments of intragroup conflict. Administrative Science Quarterly 40:256–282.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Alexander, E. 1994. The non-Euclidean mode of planning: What is it to be? Journal of the American Planning Association 60:372–376.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Friedman, J. 1994. The utility of non-Euclidean planning. Journal of the American Planning Association 60:377–379.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Barmark, J., and G. Wallen. 1986. The interaction of cognitive and social factors in steering a large scale interdisciplinary project. In Interdisciplinary analysis and research: Theory and practice of problem focused research and development ed. D. Chubin et al., 229–239. Mt. Airy, Md.: Lomond Publications.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Scheidel, T. 1996. Divergent and convergent thinking in group decision-making. In Commun-cation and group decision-making ed. R. Hirokawa and M. Poole, 113–130. Beverly Hills: Sage.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Taylor, J. 1986. Building an interdisciplinary team. In Interdisciplinary analysis and research: Theory and practice of problem focused research and development ed. D. Chubin et al., 141–154. Mt. Airy, Md.: Lomond Publications.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Narayanan, V., and L. Fahey. 1982. The micro-politics of strategy formulation. Academy of Management Review 7:25–34.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Entwistle, N. 1981. Styles of learning and teaching. Chichester, U.K.: Wiley.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Hyman, I., et al. 1973. Patterns of interprofessional conflict resolution on school child study teams. Journal of School Psychology 11:187–195.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Barker, M. 1974. Information and complexity: The conceptualization of air pollution by specialist groups. Environment and Behavior 6:346–377.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Perkins, J. 1982. Insects experts and the insecticide crisis: The quest for new pest management strategies. New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Brown, J. 1984. Professional hegemony and analytic possibility: The interaction of engineers and anthropologists in project development. In Applied social science for environmental planning ed. W. Millsap, 37–59. Boulder, Colo.: West-view Press.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Erickson, P. 1979. Environmental impact assessment: Principles and applications. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Hirschhorn, L. 1988. The workplace with in: The psychodynamics of organizational life. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Putnam, L. 1996. Conflict in group decision-making. In Communication in group decision-making ed. R. Hirokawa and M. Poole, 175–196. Beverly Hills: Sage.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    DeBiasio, A. 1986. Problem solving in triads composed of varying numbers of field-dependent and field-independent subjects. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 51:749–754.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Davies, M. 1985. Cognitive-style differences in belief persistence after evidential discrediting. Personality and Individual Differences 6:341–346.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Greene, L. 1976. Effects of field dependence on affective reactions and compliance in dyadic interactions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 34:569–577.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Gruenfeld, L., and T. Lin. 1984. Social behavior of field independents and dependents in an organic group. Human Relations 37:721–741.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Kennedy, J. 1988. Legislative confrontation of groupthink in U.S. natural resource agencies. Environmental Conservation 15:123–128.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Hirschhorn, L., and C. Barnett. 1993. The psychodynamics of organizations. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Clark, T. 1993. Creating and using knowledge for species and ecosystem conservation: Science, organizations, and policy. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 36:497–525.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Dunbar, R., J. Dutton, and W. Torbert. 1982. Crossing mother: Ideological constraints on organizational improvements. Journal of Management Studies 19:91–108.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Taylor, S., and R. Bogdan. 1980. Defending illusions: The institutions struggle for survival. Human Organization 39:209–218.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Rolling, C., and G. Meffe. 1996. Command and control and the pathology of natural resource management. Conservation Biology 10:328–337.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Kessler, W., and H. Salwasser. 1995. Natural re-source agencies: Transforming from within. In A new century for natural resources management ed. R. Knight and S. Bates, 171–187. Washington, D.C.: Island Press.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Clarke, J., and D. McCool. 1996. Staking out the terra in: Power and performance among natural resource agencies. Albany: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Brunson, M., and J. Kennedy. 1995. Redefining “multiple use”: Agency responses to changing social values. In A new century for natural resources management ed. R. Knight and S. Bates, 143–158. Washington, D.C.: Island Press.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Westley, E 1995. Governing design: The management of social systems and ecosystem management. In Barriers and bridges to renewal of ecosystems and institutions ed. L. Gunderson, C. Rolling, and S. Light, 391–427. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Dietz, T., and R. Rycroft. 1987. The risk profes- sionals. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Harshbarger, D. 1973. The individual and the social order: Notes on the management of heresy and deviance in complex organizations. Human Relations 26:251–269.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Dowie, M. 1995. Losing ground: American environmentalism at the close of the twentieth century. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Sessions, G. 1996. Critical notice of Earth First! Environmental Apocalypse. Trumpeter 13:197–200.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Sessions, G. 1995. Political correctness, ecologicalrealities, and the future of the ecology movement. The Trumpeter 12:191–196.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Shaiko, R. 1993. Greenpeace U.S.A.: Something old, new, borrowed. Annals AAPSS 528:88–100.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Brown, G., and C. Harris. 1992. The U.S. Forest Service: Toward the new resource management paradigm? Society and Natural Resources 5:231–245.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    DeBonis, J. 1995. Natural resource agencies: Questioning the paradigm. In A new century for natural resources management ed. R. Knight and S. Bates, 159–170. Washington, D.C.: Island Press.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Mattson, D. 1996. Ethics and science in natural resource agencies. BioScience 46:767–771.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Villanueva, A. 1996. Conflict and cooperation in environmental administration. Social Science Journal 33:421–435.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Anderson, W. 1992. The reasoning of the strongest: The polemics of skill and science in medical diagnosis. Social Studies of Science 22:653–684.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Parmerlee, M., J. Near, and T. Jensen. 1982. Correlates of whistle-blowers’ perceptions of organizational retaliation. Aministrative Sciences Quarterly 27:17–34.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Williams, N., G. Sjoberg, and A. Sjoberg. 1980. The bureaucratic personality: An alternative view. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science 16:389–405.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    O’Day, R. 1974. Intimidation rituals: Reactions to reform. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science 10:373–386.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Monthey, R. 1994. Organizational adaptations to ecosystem management in the Pacific northwest. In Managing forests to meet peope’s needs: Proceedings of the 1994 Society of American Foresters/ Canadian Institute of Forestry convention. 18–22 September. Anchorage, Alaska: Society of American Foresters.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Hilborn, R. 1992. Can fisheries agencies learn from experience? Fisheries 17:6–14. Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Springer, J. 1985. Policy analysis and organizational decisions: Toward a conceptual revision. Administration and Society 16:475–508.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Bullis, C. 1991. Communication practices as unobtrusive control: An observational study. Communication Studies 42:254–271.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Miller, A. 1984. Professional dissent and environmental management. The Environmentalist 4:143–152.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Perrucci, R., et al. 1980. Whistle-blowing: Professionals’ resistance to organizational authority. Social Problems 28:149–164.Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Swift, J. 1983. Cut and run: The assault on Canada’s forests. Toronto: Between the Lines.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Norgaard, R. 1992. Coordinating disciplinary and organizational ways of knowing. Agriculture Ecosystems and Environment 42:205–216.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Lee, R. 1992. Ecologically effective social organization as a requirement for sustaining watershed ecosystems. In Watershed management: Balancing sustainability and environmental change ed. R. Naiman, 73–89. New York: Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Staw, B., L. Sandelands, and J. Dutton. 1981. Threat-rigidity effects in organizational behavior: A multilevel analysis. Administrative Science Quarterly 26:501–524.Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Bella, D. 1987. Organizations and systematic distortion of information. Journal of Professional Issues in Engineering 113:360–370.Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Deshpande, R., and A. Kohli. 1989. Knowledge Disavowal-Structural determinants of information-processing breakdown in organizations. Knowledge: Creation Diffusion Utilization 11:155 -169.Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Trist, E. 1993. The assumptions of ordinariness as a denial mechanism: Innovation and conflict in a coal mine. In The psychodynamics of organizations ed. L. Hirschhorn and C. Barnett, 165–175. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Knuth, B., et al. 1995. Fishery and environmental managers’ attitudes about and support for Lake Trout rehabilitation in the Great Lakes. Journal of Great Lakes Research 21:185–197.Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Clarke, L. 1989. Acceptable risk: Making decisions in a toxic environment. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Collingridge, D. 1992. The management of scale: Big organizations big decisions big mistakes. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Lyles, M., and I. Mitroff. 1980. Organizational problem formulation: An empirical study. Administrative Sciences Quarterly 25:102–119.Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Caldwell, L. 1994. Disharmony in the Great Lakes Basin: Institutional jurisdictions frustrate the ecosystem approach. Alternatives 20:26–31.Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Dryzek, J. 1987. Rational ecology: Environment and political economy. New York: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Harrison, K. 1990. Between science and politics: Assessing the risks of dioxins in Canada and the United States. University of British Columbia. Prepared for delivery at the annual Meeting of the Canadian Political Science Association, Victoria, B.C., 27–29 May 1990.Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Smil, V. 1993. Global Ecology: Environmental change and social flexibility. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Beckerman, W. 1995. Small is stupid: Blowing the whistle on the greens. London: Duckworth.Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Collingridge, D., and C. Reeve 1986. Science speaks to power: The role of experts in policy making. London: Francis Pinter.Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Bosso, C. 1987. Pesticides and politics: The life cycle of a public issue. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press.Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Salazar, D., and D. Alper. 1996. Perceptions of power and the management of environmental conflict: Forest politics in British Columbia. Social Science Journal 33:381–399.Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Dumont, C. 1996. The demise of community and ecology in the Pacific northwest: Historical roots of the ancient forest conflict. Sociological Perspectives 39:277–300.Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Gillis, R., and T. Roach 1986. Lost initiatives: Canada’s forest industries forest policy and forest conservation. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press.Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Ophuls, W., and A. Boyan. 1992. Ecology andthe politics of scarcity revisited: The unraveling of the American dream. New York: W. H. Freeman.Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Dobuzinskis, L. 1992. Modernist and postmodernist metaphors of the policy process: Control and stability vs. chaos and reflexive understanding. Policy Sciences 25:355–380.Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Hausler, S. 1993. Community forestry: A critical assessment. The case of Nepal. The Ecologist 23:84–90.Google Scholar
  114. 1.
    Edwards, D. 1996. Sci-Fi or Chomsky? Ecologist 26:76–77.Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Gould, K. 1993. Pollution and perception: Social visibility and local environmental mobilization. Qualitative Sociology 16:157–178.Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    West, P. 1994. Natural resources and the persistence of rural poverty in America: A Weberian perspective on the role of power, domination, and natural resource bureaucracy. Society and Natural Resources 7:415–427.Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    MacNutt, W. 1963. New Brunswick: A history: 1784–1867. Toronto: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Baskerville, G. 1995. The forestry problem: Adaptive lurches of renewal. In Barriers and bridges to renewal of ecosystems and institutions ed. L. Gunderson, C. Holling, and S. Light, 37102. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Cashore, B. 1988. The role of the provincial state in forest policy: A comparative study of British Columbia and New Brunswick. Master’s thesis, Carleton University, Ottawa, Canada.Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Kunioka, T., and L. Rothenburg. 1993. The politics of bureaucratic competition: The case of natural resource policy. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 12:700–725.Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Hoberg, G., and K. Harrison. 1994. It’s not easy being green: The politics of Canada’s green plan. Canadian Public Policy 20:119–137.Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Brunner, R., and W. Ascher. 1992. Science and social responsibility. Policy Sciences 25:295–331.Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Adams, P., and A. Hairston. 1996. Calling all experts: Using science to direct policy. Journal of Forestry 94:27–30.Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Bolin, B. 1994. Science and policy making. Ambio 23:25–29.Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Ewart, A., ed. 1996. Natural resource management: The human dimension. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Lubchenko, J., et al. 1991. The sustainable biosphere intiative: An ecological research agenda. Ecology 72:371–412.Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Malone, T., and R. Corell. 1989. Mission to planet earth revisited: An update on studies of global change. Environment 31:6–11, 31–35.Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Marcin, T. 1995. Integrating social sciences into forest ecosystem management research. Journal of Forestry 93:29–33.Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    Orians, G. 1986. The place of science in environmental problem solving. Environment 28:12–17, 38–41.Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    Stern, P., O. Young, and D. Druckman, eds. 1992. Global environmental change: Understanding the human dimensions. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    Ozawa, C. 1996. Science in environmental conflicts. Sociological Perspectives 39:219–230.Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    Kwa, C. 1987. Representations of nature mediating between ecology and science policy: The case of the international biological programme. Social Studies of Science 17:413–442.Google Scholar
  133. 133.
    Wildaysky, A. 1995. But is it true? A citizen’s guide to environmental health and safety issues. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    Parlour, J. 1978. The roles of specialists and institutions in the development of environmental information. Journal of Environmental Management 7:219–234.Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    Robinson, J. 1992. Risks, predictions, and other optical illusions: Rethinking the use of science in social decision-making. Policy Sciences 25:237–254.Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    Florio, E., and J. Demartini. 1993. The use of information by policymakers at the local cornmunity level. Knowledge: Creation Diffusion Utilization 15:106–123.Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    Greenberg, M. 1992. Impediments to basing government health policies on science in the United States. Social Science and Medicine 35:531–540.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Hoberg, G. 1990. Risk, science, and politics: Alachlor regulations in Canada and the United States. Canadian Journal of Political Science 23:257–277.Google Scholar
  139. 139.
    Martin, B. 1988. Scientific controversies: Nuclear winter: Science and politics. Science and Public Policy 15:321–334.Google Scholar
  140. 140.
    Stockdale, J. 1988. Facts or ideology? Science and environmental policy. Wisconsin Sociologist 25:144–152.Google Scholar
  141. 141.
    Carver, J. 1976. Energy, information, and public policy. American Behavioral Scientist 19:279–285.Google Scholar
  142. 142.
    Brown, G. 1993. Science + advice science policy advice: The role of scientific expertise in policy-making. Research Technology Management 36:9.Google Scholar
  143. 143.
    Ludwig, D., R. Hilborn, and C. Walters. 1993. Uncertainty, resource exploitation, and con-servation: Lessons from history. Ecological Applications 3:547–549.Google Scholar
  144. 144.
    Ludwig, D. 1993. Environmental sustainability: magic, science, and religion in natural resource management. Ecological Applications 3:555–558.Google Scholar
  145. 145.
    Milbrath, L. 1989. Envisioning a sustainable society. Albany, N.Y.: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
  146. 146.
    Sessions, G. 1995. Postmodernism and environmental justice: The demise of the ecology movement? The Trumpeter 12:150–154.Google Scholar
  147. 147.
    Perrolle, J. 1993. Comments from the special issue editor: The emerging dialogue on environmental justice. Social Problems 40:1–4.Google Scholar
  148. 148.
    Pinderhughes, R. 1996. The impact of race on environmental quality: An empirical and theoretical discussion. Sociological Perspectives 39:231–248.Google Scholar
  149. 149.
    Tatroff, D. 1993. Clear-cut thinking. Our Times 12:26–34.Google Scholar
  150. 150.
    Lertzman, K., J. Rayner, and J. Wilson. 1996. Learning and change in the British Columbia forest policy sectior: A consideration of Saba-tier’s advocacy coalition framework. Canadian Journal of Political Science 29:111–133.Google Scholar
  151. 151.
    Higgelke, P., and P. Duinker. 1993. Open doors: Public participation in forest management in Canada. Report to the Canadian Pulp and Paper Association, Forestry Canada, Lakehead University, Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada.Google Scholar
  152. 152.
    Wiedemann, P., and S. Femers. 1993. Public participation in waste management decision making: Analysis and management of conflicts. Journal of Hazardous Materials 33:355–368.Google Scholar
  153. 153.
    Modavi, N. 1996. Mediation of environmental conflicts in Hawaii: Win-win or co-optation? Sociological Perspectives 39:310–316.Google Scholar
  154. 154.
    Gericke, K., and J. Sullivan. 1994. Public participation and appeals of Forest Service plans-An empirical examination. Society and Natural Resources 7:125–135. Google Scholar
  155. 155.
    Nelkin, D., and M. Pollak. 1979. Consensus and conflict resolution: The politics of assessing risk. Science and Public Policy 6:307–318.Google Scholar
  156. 156.
    Wynne, B. 1982. Rationality and ritual: The Windscale inquiry and nuclear decisions in Britain. BSHS Monograph 3. Chalfont St. Giles, U.K.: British Society for the History of Science.Google Scholar
  157. 157.
    Cortner, H., and M. Shannon. 1993. Embedding public participation. Journal of Forestry 91:14–16.Google Scholar
  158. 158.
    Mohai, R 1987. Public participation and natural resource decision-making: The case of the RARE II decisions. Natural Resources Journal 27:123–155.Google Scholar
  159. 159.
    Miller, A., and W. Cuff. 1986. The Delphi approach to the mediation of environmental disputes. Environmental Management 10:321–330. Google Scholar
  160. 160.
    Baskerville, G., and R Duinker. 1986. Pest management in plantations: An institutional analysis. In Pest management in plantations: A consultative approach ed. N. Sonntag et al. Vancouver, B.C.: ESSA Ltd.Google Scholar
  161. 161.
    Diemer, J., and R. Alvarez. 1995. Sustainable community, sustainable forestry: A participatory model. Journal of Forestry 93:10–14.Google Scholar
  162. 162.
    deLeon, R 1990. Participatory policy analysis: Prescriptions and precautions. Asian Journal of Public Administration 12:29–54.Google Scholar
  163. 163.
    Steel, B., J. Pierce, and N. Lovrich. 1996. Resources and strategies of interest groups and industry representatives involved in federal forest policy. Social Science Journal 33:401–419.Google Scholar
  164. 164.
    Almeida, P., and L. Stearns. 1998. Political opportunities and local grassroots environmental movements: The case of Minamata. Social Problems 45:37–60.Google Scholar
  165. 165.
    Cable, S., and M. Benson. 1993. Acting locally: Environmental injustice and the emergence of grass-roots environmental organizations. Social Problems 40:464–477Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alan Miller
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of New BrunswickFrederictonCanada

Personalised recommendations