Vegetation, Fire Regimes, and Forest Dynamics

  • Richard A. Minnich
Part of the Ecological Studies book series (ECOLSTUD, volume 134)

Abstract

The San Bernardino Mountains (SBM) have remarkably diverse shrub land and conifer forest communities in association with climatic gradients produced by large elevational relief. Wildland fire also plays a vital role affecting species composition, vegetation structure, and biogeography. In evaluating the effects of air pollution in SBM, it is important to consider fire disturbance as a mediator in stand dynamics and postfire successions and, in particular, how structural changes of some ecosystems due to a century of fire exclusion may have selectively altered the fitness and competitiveness of species, thereby affecting their resistance to air pollution. This chapter serves two goals: (1) to describe the vegetation of SBM, and (2) to evaluate the fire ecology of major ecosystems.

Keywords

Biomass Burning Steam Ozone Germinate 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Agee, J.K. Fire ecology of Pacific northwest forests. Washington, DC: Island Press; 1993.Google Scholar
  2. Bolton, R.B., Jr.; Vogl, R.J. Ecological requirements of Pseudotsuga macrocarpa (Vasey) Mayr in the Santa Ana Mountains, California. J. For. 67:112–116; 1969.Google Scholar
  3. Bonnicksen, T.M.; Stone, E.C. The giant sequoia-mixed conifer forest community characterized through pattern analysis as a mosaic of aggregations. For. Ecol. Manage. 3:307–328; 1981.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bonnickson, T.M.; Stone, E.C. Reconstruction of a presettlement giant sequoia-mixed conifer forest community using the aggregation approach. Ecology 63:1134–1148; 1982.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Borchart, M. Serotiny and cone-habit variation in populations of Pinus coulteri (Pinaceae) in the southern coast ranges of California. Madrono 32:29–49; 1985.Google Scholar
  6. Bruhn, J.N. Effects of oxidant air pollution on ponderosa and Jeffrey pine foliage decomposition. PhD Thesis, Univ. of California, Berkeley; 1980.Google Scholar
  7. Chou, Y.H.; Minnich, R.A.; Dezzani, R.J. Do fire sizes differ between southern California and northern Baja California? For. Sci. 39:835–844; 1993.Google Scholar
  8. Christensen, N.L. Fire regimes and ecosystem dynamics. In: Crutzen, P.J.; Goldammer, J.G., eds. Fire in the environment: the ecological, atmospheric, and climatic importance of vegetation fires. New York: John Wiley & Sons; 1993:233–244.Google Scholar
  9. Countryman, C.M.; Philpot, C.W. Physical characteristics of chamise as a wildland fuel. Research paper PSW-66. Berkeley, CA: USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Station; 1970.Google Scholar
  10. Critchfield, W.B. Genetics of lodgepole pine. USDA Forest Service. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office; 1980.Google Scholar
  11. Edinger, J.G.; McCutchan, M.H.; Miller, P.R.; Ryan, B.C.; Schroeder, M.J.; Behar, J.V. Penetration and duration of oxidant air pollution in the South Coast Air Basin of California. J. Air Pollut. Control Assoc. 22:882–886; 1972.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Erdman, J.A. Pinyon-juniper succession after natural fires on residual soils of Mesa Verde, Colorado. Brigham Young Univ. Sci. Bull. Biol. Ser. 11(2); 1970.Google Scholar
  13. Gara, R.I.; Agee, J.K.; Littke, W.R.; Geizler, D.R. Fire wounds and beetle scars: distinguishing between the two can help reconstruct past disturbances. J. For. 84:47–50; 1986.Google Scholar
  14. Gause, G.W. Silvicultural characteristics of bigcone Douglas-fir (Pseudtsuga macrocarpa). Research paper PSW-39. Berkeley, CA: USDA Forest Service. Pacific Southwest Station; 1966.Google Scholar
  15. Griffin, J.R. Pine seedlings, native ground cover, and Lolium multiflorum on the marble cone burn, Santa Lucia Range, California. Madroño 29:177–188; 1982.Google Scholar
  16. Grinnell, J. The biota of the San Bernardino Mountains. Univ. Calif. Pub. Bot. 5:1–170: 1908.Google Scholar
  17. Hanes, T.L. Chaparral. In: Barbour, M.G.; Major, J., eds. Terrestrial vegetation of California. Special Publication. Davis, CA: California Botanical Society; 1988:417–469.Google Scholar
  18. Hart, S.C.; Firestone, M.K.; Paul, E.A. Decomposition and nutrient dynamics of ponderosa pine needles in a Mediterranean-type climate. Can. J. For. Res. 22:306–314; 1992.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Haston, L.L.; Davis, F.W.; Michaelson, J. Climatic response functions for bigcone spruce. Physical Geogr. 9:81–97; 1988.Google Scholar
  20. Heinselman, M.L. Fire and succession in the conifer forests of northern North America. In: West, D.C.; Shugart, H.H.; Botkin, D.B., eds. Forest succession: concepts and application. New York: Springer-Verlag; 1981a:374–405.Google Scholar
  21. Heinselman, M.L. Fire intensity and frequency as factors in the distribution and structure of northern ecosystems. In: Mooney, H.A.; Bonnicksen, T.M.; Christensen, N.L.; Lotan, J.E.; Reiners, W.A., tech. coords. Fire regimes and ecosystem properties. Gen. Tech. Rep. WO-26. Washington, DC: USDA Forest Service; 1981b:7–57.Google Scholar
  22. Johnson, E.A.; Gutsell, S.L. Fire frequency models, methods and interpretations. Adv. Ecol. Res. 15:239–287; 1994.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kahrl, W.L., et al. The California water atlas. Sacramento, CA: California Dept. Water Resources; 1978.Google Scholar
  24. Kauffman, J.B.; Martin, R.E. Shrub and hardwood response to prescribed burning with varying season, weather, and fuel moisture. Fire For. Meteor. Conf. 8:279–286; 1985.Google Scholar
  25. Kauffman, J.B.; Martin, R.E. Sprouting shrub response to different seasons and fuel consumption levels of prescribed fire in Sierra Nevada mixed conifer ecosystems. For. Sci. 36:748–764; 1990.Google Scholar
  26. Kauffman, J.B.; Martin, R.E. Factors influencing the scarification and germination of three montane Sierra Nevada shrubs. Northwest Sci. 65:180–187; 1991.Google Scholar
  27. Keeley, J.E. Seed germination and life history syndromes in the California chaparral. Bot. Rev. 57:81–117; 1989.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Keeley, J.E.; Keeley, S.C. Chaparral. In: Barbour, M.G.; Billings, W.D., eds. North American terrestrial vegetation. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press; 1989:166–207.Google Scholar
  29. Kercher, J.R.; Axelrod, M.C. A process model of fire ecology and succession in a mixedconifer forest. Ecology 65:1735–1742; 1984.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kilgore, B.M. The ecological role of fire in Sierran conifer forests: its application to national park management. Quat. Res. 3:496–513; 1973.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Kilgore, B.M. Fire in ecosystem distribution and structure: western forests and scrublands. In: Mooney, H.A. et al., tech. coords. Fire regimes and ecosystem properties. Proceed ings of the Conference. Gen. Tech. Rep. WO-26. USDA Forest Service; 1981:58–89.Google Scholar
  32. Kilgore, B.M.; Briggs, G.S. Restoring fire to high elevation forests in California. J. For. 70:266–271; 1972.Google Scholar
  33. Kilgore, B.M.; Taylor, D. Fire history in a sequoia-mixed conifer forest. Ecology 60:129–142; 1979.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kinney, A. Report on the forests of the counties of Los Angeles, San Bernardino and San Diego, California. 1st Biennial report, 1885-86. Sacramento, CA: California State Board of Forestry; 1887.Google Scholar
  35. Knight, D.H. Parasites, lightning, and the vegetation mosaics in wilderness landscapes. In: Turner, M.G., ed. Landscape heterogeneity and disturbance. Ecological studies 64. New York: Springer-Verlag; 1987:59–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Koniak, S. Succession in pinyon-juniper woodlands following wildfire in the Great Basin. Great Basin Nat. 45:81–116; 1985.Google Scholar
  37. Leiberg, J.B. San Gabriel, San Bernardino, and San Jacinto forest reserves. In: Gannett, H., ed. Nineteenth annual report of the U.S. Geological Survey to the Secretary of Agriculture. Part 5, Forest reserves. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office; 1899:359–370.Google Scholar
  38. Leiberg, J.B. San Gabriel, San Bernardino, and San Jacinto forest reserves. In: Twentieth annual report of the U.S. Geological Survey to the Secretary of Agriculture. Part 5, Forest reserves. Washington, DC; Government Printing Office; 1900:411–479.Google Scholar
  39. Lockmann, R.F. Guarding the forest of southern California: evolving attitudes toward conservation of watershed, woodlands, and wilderness. Glendale, CA: Arthur H. Clark Co.; 1981.Google Scholar
  40. Loucks, O.L. Evolution of diversity, efficiency, and community stability. Am. Zool. 10:17–25; 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. McBride, J.R.; Laven, R.D. Fire scars as an indicator of fire frequency in the San Bernardino Mountains, California. J. For. 74:439–442; 1976.Google Scholar
  42. McDonald, P.M.; Littrell, E.E. The bigcone Douglas fir-canyon live oak community in southern California. Madroño 23: 310–320; 1976.Google Scholar
  43. Mclntosh, R.P. Succession and ecological theory. In: West, C; Shugart, H.H.; Botkin, D.B., eds. Forest succession: concepts and application. New York: Springer-Verlag; 1981: 10–23.Google Scholar
  44. McKelvey, K.S.; Johnston, J.D. Historical perspective on forests of the Sierra Nevada and the Transverse Ranges of southern California: forest conditions at the turn of the century. In: Verner, J.; McKelvey, K.S.; Noon, B.R.; Gutiérrez, R.J.; Gould, G.I.; Beck, T.W. tech. coords. The California spotted owl: a technical assessment of its current status. Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-133. Albany, CA: USDA Forest Service; 1992: 225–246.Google Scholar
  45. McNeil, R.C.; Zobel, D.B. Vegetation and fire history of a ponderosa pine-white fir forest in Crater Lake National Park. Northwest Sci. 54: 30–46; 1980.Google Scholar
  46. Michaelsen, J.; Haston, L.; Davis, F.W. 400 Years of central California precipitation variability reconstructed from new tree ring chronologies. Water Resour. Bull. 23: 809–818; 1987.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Minnich, R.A. The geography of fire and conifer forests in the eastern Transverse Ranges, California. PhD Thesis, Univ. of California, Los Angeles; 1978.Google Scholar
  48. Minnich, R.A. Wildfire and the geographic relationships between canyon live oak, coulter pine, and bigcone Douglas fir forests. In: Plumb, T.R., tech. coord. Proceedings of the symposium on the ecology, management, and utilization of California oaks. Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-44. Berkeley, CA: USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Station; 1980: 55–61.Google Scholar
  49. Minnich, R.A. Pseudotsuga macrocarpa in Baja California? Madroùo 29: 22–31; 1982.Google Scholar
  50. Minnich, R.A. Fire mosaics in southern California and northern Baja California. Science 219: 1287–1294; 1983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Minnich, R.A. Snow drifting and timberline dynamics on Mount San Gorgonio, California, USA. Arct. Alpine Res. 16: 395–412; 1984.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Minnich, R.A. The distribution of forest trees in northern Baja California. Madrono 34: 98–127; 1987a.Google Scholar
  53. Minnich, R.A. Fire behavior in southern California chaparral before fire control: the Mount Wilson burns at the turn of the century. Ann. Assoc. Am. Geogr. 77: 599–618; 1987b.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Minnich, R.A. The biogeography of fire in the San Bernardino Mountains of California: a historical study. Univ. Calif. Pub. Geogr. 27: 1–121; 1988.Google Scholar
  55. Minnich, R.A.; Bahre, C.J. Wildland fire and chaparral succession along the California-Baja California boundary. Int. J. Wildland Fire 5: 13–24; 1995.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Minnich, R.A.; Chou, Y.H. Wildland fire patch dynamics in the Californian chaparral of southern California and northern Baja California. Int. J. Wildland Fire 7: 221–248; 1997.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Minnich, R.A.; Franco-Vizcaino, E.; Sosa-Ramirez, J.; Chou, Y.H. Lightning detection rates and wildland fire occurrence in the mountains of northern Baja California. Atmosfera 6: 235–253; 1993.Google Scholar
  58. Minnich, R.A.; Barbour, M.G.; Burk, J.H.; Fernau, R.F. Sixty years of change in conifer forests of the San Bernardino Mountains: reconstruction of Californian mixed conifer forests prior to fire suppression. Conserv. Biol. 9: 902–914; 1993.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Minnich, R.A.; Dezzani, R.J. Historical decline of coastal sage scrub in the Riversidc-Perris Plain. Western Birds (in press).Google Scholar
  60. Minnich, R.A.; Barbour, M.G.; Burk, J.H.; Sosa-Ramirez, J. Californian conifer forests under unmanaged fire regimes in the Sierra San Pedro Mártir, Baja California, Mexico. J. Biogeogr. (in press).Google Scholar
  61. Parker, A.J. Persistence of lodgepole pine forests in the central Sierra Nevada. Ecology 67: 1560–1567; 1986.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Parker, A.J. Structural variation and dynamics of lodgepole pine forests in Lassen Volcanic National Park, California. Ann. Assoc. Am. Geogr. 83: 613–629; 1993.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Parker, A.J.; Peet, R.K. Size and age structure of conifer forests. Ecology 65: 1685–1689; 1984.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Parsons, D.J.; DeBenedetti, S.H. Impact of fire suppression on a mixed-conifer forest. For. Ecol. Manage. 2: 21–33; 1979.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Parsons, D.J.; Swetnam, T.W. Restoring natural fire to the sequoia-mixed conifer forest: should intense fire play a role? Tall Timbers Fire Ecol. Conf. 20: 20–30; 1989.Google Scholar
  66. Paysen, T.E.; Cohen, J.D. Chamise chaparral dead fuel fraction is not reliably predicted by age. West. J. For. 5: 127–131; 1990.Google Scholar
  67. Peterson, D.L.; Arbaugh, M.J. Mixed conifer forests of the Sierra Nevada. In: Olson, R.K.; Binkley, D.; Bohm, M., eds. The response of western forests to air pollution. Ecological studies 97. New York: Springer-Verlag; 1992: 433–459.Google Scholar
  68. Plumb, T.R. Responses of oaks to fire. In: Plumb, T.R., tech. coord. Symposium on the ecology, management and utilization of California oaks. Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-44. Berkeley, CA: USDA Forest Service; 1980: 202–215.Google Scholar
  69. Pyne, S.J. Fire in America: a cultural history of wildland and rural fire. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press; 1982.Google Scholar
  70. Riggan, P.J.; Goode, S.; Jacks, P.M.; Lockwood, R.N. Interaction of fire and community development in chaparral of southern California. Ecol. Monogr. 58: 155–176; 1988.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Rundel, P.W.; Gordon, D.T.; Parsons, D.J. Montane and subalpine vegetation in the Sierra Nevada and Cascade ranges. In: Barbour, M.G.; Major, J., eds. Terrestrial vegetation of California. Special publication. Davis, CA: California Botanical Society; 1988: 559–600.Google Scholar
  72. Savage, M. Anthropogenic and natural disturbance and patterns of mortality in a mixed conifer forest stand in California. Can. J. For. Res. 24: 1149–1159; 1994.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Sawyer, J.O.; Thornburgh, D.A.; Griffin, J.R. Mixed evergreen forest. In: Barbour, M.G.; Major, J., eds. Terrestrial vegetation of California. Special publication. Davis, CA: California Botanical Society; 1988: 359–381.Google Scholar
  74. Sheppard, PR.; Means, J.E.; Lassoie, J.P. Cross-dating cores as a nondestructive method for dating living, scarred trees. For. Sci. 34: 781–789; 1988.Google Scholar
  75. SNEP Science Team, eds. Status of the Sierra Nevada, final report to Congress of the Sierra Nevada Ecosystem Project. 3 vols. Wildland Resources Center Rep. 36. Davis, CA: Univ. of California; 1996.Google Scholar
  76. Sprugel, D.G. Disturbance, equilibrium and environmental variability: what is“natural” vegetation in a changing environment? Conserv. Biol. 58: 1–18; 1991.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Stohlgren, T.J. Litter dynamics in two Sierran mixed conifer forests. I: Litterfall and decomposition rates. Can. J. For. Res. 18: 1127–1135; 1988.Google Scholar
  78. Swetnam, T.W. Fire history and climate in the southwestern United States. In: Krammes, J.S.; Swolinski, M.J.; Covington, W.W., eds. Effects of fire in management of southwestern natural resources. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-191. Missoula, MT: USDA Forest Service; 1991: 6–17.Google Scholar
  79. Swetnam, T.W. Fire history and climatic change in giant sequoia groves. Science 262: 885–890; 1993.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Talley, S.N.; Griffin, J.R. Fire ecology of montane pine forest, Junipero Serra Peak, California. Madrono 27: 49–60; 1980.Google Scholar
  81. Thorne, R.F. Montane and subalpine forests of the Transverse and Peninsular ranges. In: Barbour, M.G.; Major, J., eds. Terrestrial vegetation of California. Special publication. Davis, CA: California Botanical Society; 1988: 537–557.Google Scholar
  82. U.S. Department of Agriculture. Estimating fire potential in California: atlas and guide for fire management planning. Vol. 10, sec. 9. Riverside, CA: USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Station; 1982.Google Scholar
  83. Vale, T.R. Pinus coulteri and wildfire on Mount Diablo, California. Madroño 26: 135–139; 1979.Google Scholar
  84. Vale, T.R. Vegetation management and nature protection. In: Malanson, G.P., ed. Natural areas facing climatic change. The Hague: SPB Academic Publishing; 1989: 75–86.Google Scholar
  85. Van der Wall, S.B.; Balda, R.P. Coadaptation of the Clark’ nutcracker and the pinyon pine for efficient seed harvest and dispersal. Ecol. Monogr. 47: 89–111; 1977.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Vankat, J.L. Fire and man in Sequoia National Park. Ann. Assoc. Am. Geogr. 67: 17–27; 1977.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Vankat, J.L.; Major, J. Vegetation changes in Sequoia National Park, California. J. Biogeogr. 5: 377–402; 1978.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. van Wagtendonk, J.W. Refined burning prescriptions for Yosemite National Park. Occas. pap. 2. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Interior, National Park Service; 1974.Google Scholar
  89. Vasek, F.C.; Clovis, J.F. Growth forms in Arctostaphylos glauca. Madroño 26: 135–139; 1976Google Scholar
  90. Veblen, T.T.; Hadley, K.S.; Reid, M.S. Disturbance and stand development of a Colorado subalpine forest. J. Biogeogr. 18: 707–716; 1991.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Vogl, R.J.; Armstrong, W.P.; White, K.L.; Cole, K.L. The closed-cone pines and cypresses. In: Barbour, M.G.; Major, J., eds. Terrestrial vegetation of California. Special publication. Davis, CA: California Botanical Society; 1988: 295–357.Google Scholar
  92. Wangler, M.J.; Minnich, R.A. Fire and succession in pinyon-juniper woodlands of the San Bernardino Mountains, California. Madrono 43: 493–514; 1996.Google Scholar
  93. Weatherspoon, C.P.; Husari, S.J.; van Wagtendonk, J.W. Fire and fuels management in relation to owl habitat in forests of the Sierra Nevada and southern California. In: Verner, J.; McKelvey, K.S.; Noon, B.R.; Gutiérrez, R.J.; Gould, G.I.; Beck, T.W., tech. coords. The California spotted owl: a technical assessment of its current status. Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-133. Albany, CA: USDA Forest Service; 1992.Google Scholar
  94. Weislander, A.E. Vegetation types of California: San Bernardino, Redlands, Hesperia, Deep Creek quadrangles (1:62,500), San Gorgonio Quadrangle (1:125,000). Berkeley, CA: USDA Forest Service, California Forest and Range Experiment Station; 1929–1934.Google Scholar
  95. Zedler, P.H.; Gautier, C.R.; MacMaster, G.S. Vegetation change in response to extreme events: the effect of a short interval between fires in California chaparral and coastal scrub. Ecology 64: 809–818; 1983.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Richard A. Minnich

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations