Interacting Effects of Multiple Stresses on Growth and Physiological Processes in Northern Forest Trees

  • Judson G. Isebrands
  • Richard E. Dickson
  • Joanne Rebbeck
  • David F. Karnosky
Part of the Ecological Studies book series (ECOLSTUD, volume 139)


Global climate chagnge is a complex and controversial subject, both technically and politically. Recently, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) of the United Nations concluded that “the balance of evidence suggests a discernible human influence on global climate,” and that “further accumulation of greenhouse gases will commit the earth irreversibly to global climate change with its consequent ecological, economic, and social disruption” (Houghton et al., 1996; Brown et al., 1997; Kerr, 1997). One of the concerns is that changing climate will have major effects on future forest composition, productivity, sustainability, and biological as well as genetic diversity (Houghton et al., 1996).


Plant Cell Environ Tropospheric Ozone Populus Tremuloides Yellow Poplar Liriodendron Tulipifera 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Adams RM, Glyer JD, Johnson SL, McCart BA (1989) A reassessment of the economic effects of ozone on U.S. agriculture. J Air Pollut Control Assoc 39:960–968.Google Scholar
  2. Allen LH Jr. (1990) Plant responses to rising carbon dioxide and potential interactions with air pollutants. J Environ Qual 19:15–34.Google Scholar
  3. Anderson CP, Rygiewicz PT (1991) Stress interactions and mycorrhizal response: understanding carbon allocation priorities. Environ Pollut 73:217–244.Google Scholar
  4. Anderson PD, Tomlinson PT (1998) Ontogeny affects response of northern red oak seedlings to elevated CO2 and water stress. I. Carbon assimilation and biomass production. New Phytol 140:477–491.Google Scholar
  5. Barrett JW (1980) Regional Silviculture of the United States. John Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  6. Bartholomay GA, Eckert RT, Smith KT (1997) Reduction in tree-ring widths of white pine following ozone exposure at Acadia National Park, Maine. Can J For Res 27:361–368.Google Scholar
  7. Bazzaz FA, Fajer ED (1992) Plant life in a CO2-rich world. Sci Am 266:68–74.Google Scholar
  8. Bazzaz FA, Miao SL (1993) Successional status, seed size, and responses of tree seedlings to CO2, light, and nutrients. Ecology 74(1): 104–112.Google Scholar
  9. Bazzaz FA, Coleman JS, Morse SR (1990) Growth responses of seven major co-occurring tree species of the northeastern United States to elevated CO2. Can J For Res 20:1479–1484.Google Scholar
  10. Beck DE (1990) Liriodendron tulipifera L. Yellow-Poplar. In: Burns RM, Honkala BH (eds) Silvics of North America. Vol. 2. Hardwoods. Agric Handbook 654. United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service, Washington, DC, 406–416.Google Scholar
  11. Beerling DJ, Heath J, Woodward FI, Mansfield TA (1996) Drought-CO2 interaction in trees: observations and mechanisms. New Phytol 134:235–242.Google Scholar
  12. Bennett JP, Anderson RL, Mielke ML, Ebersole JJ (1994) Foliar injury air pollution surveys of eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.): a review. Environ Monitor Assess 30:247–274.Google Scholar
  13. Berrang PC, Karnosky DF, Bennett JP (1989) Natural selection for ozone tolerance in Populus tremuloides. II. Field verification. Can J For Res 19:519–522.Google Scholar
  14. Berrang PC, Karnosky DF, Bennett JP (1991) Natural selection for ozone tolerance in Populus tremuloides: an evaluation of nationwide trends. Can J For Res 21:1091–1097.Google Scholar
  15. Berrang PC, Karnosky DF, Mickler RA, Bennett JP (1986) Natural selection for ozone tolerance in Populus tremuloides. Can J For Res 16:1214–1216.Google Scholar
  16. Boerner REG, Rebbeck J (1995) Decomposition and nitrogen release from leaves of three hardwood species grown under elevated O3 and/or CO2. In: Collins HP, Robertson GP, Klug MJ (eds) The Significance and Regulation of Soil Biodiversity. Kluwer Academic, The Hague, Netherlands, pp 169–177.Google Scholar
  17. Bowes G (1993) Facing the inevitable: plants and increasing atmospheric CO2. Ann Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 44:309–332.Google Scholar
  18. Brendley BW, Pell EJ (1998) Ozone-induced changes in biosynthesis of Rubisco and associated compensation to stress in foliage of hybrid poplar. Tree Physiol 18:81–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Brown KR (1991) Carbon dioxide enrichment accelerates the decline in nutrient status and relative growth rate of Populus tremuloides Michx. seedlings. Tree Physiol 8:161–173.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Brown LR, Renner M, Flavin C (1997) Vital Signs 1997. W.W. Norton, New York.Google Scholar
  21. Cannon WN, Roberts BR (1995) Stomatal resistance and the ratio of intercellular to ambient carbon dioxide in container-grown yellow-poplar seedlings exposed to chronic ozone fumigation and water stress. Environ Exper Bot 35:161–165.Google Scholar
  22. Cannon WN, Roberts BR, Bargar JH (1993) Growth and physiological response of water-stressed yellow-poplar seedlings exposed to chronic ozone fumigation and ethylenediurea. For Ecol Manage 61:61–73.Google Scholar
  23. Carter GA, Rebbeck J, Percy KE (1995) Leaf optical properties in Liriodendron tulipifera and Pinus strobus as influenced by increased atmospheric ozone and carbon dioxide. Can J For Res 25:407–412.Google Scholar
  24. Ceulemans R, Mousseau M (1994) Effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 on woody plants. New Phytol 127:425–446.Google Scholar
  25. Ceulemans R, Jiang XN, Shao BY (1994) Growth and physiology of one-year-old poplar (Populus) under elevated atmospheric CO2 levels. Ann Bot 75:609–617.Google Scholar
  26. Chameides WL, Saylor RD, Cowling EB (1997) Ozone pollution in the rural United States and the New NAAQS. Science 276:916.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Chappelka AH, Chevone BI, Seiler J (1988) Growth and physiological responses of yellow-poplar seedlings exposed to ozone and simulated acidic rain. Environ Pollut 49:1–18.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Coleman MD, Dickson RE, Isebrands JG (1998) Growth and physiology of aspen supplied with different fertilizer addition rates. Physiol Plantarum 103:513–526.Google Scholar
  29. Coleman MD, Isebrands JG, Dickson RE, Karnosky DF (1995a) Photosynthetic productivity of aspen clones varying in sensitivity to tropospheric ozone. Tree Physiol 15:585–592.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Coleman MD, Dickson RE, Isebrands JG, Karnosky DF (1995b) Carbon allocation and partitioning in aspen clones varying in sensitivity to tropospheric ozone. Tree Physiol 15:593–604.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Coleman MD, Dickson RE, Isebrands JG, Karnosky DF (1996) Root growth and physiology of potted and field-grown trembling aspen exposed to tropospheric ozone. Tree Physiol 16:145–152.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Conroy J, Hocking P (1993) Nitrogen nutrition of C3 plants at elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Physiol Plantarum 89:570–576.Google Scholar
  33. Curtis PS (1996) A meta-analysis of leaf gas exchange and nitrogen in trees grown under elevated carbon dioxide. Plant Cell Environ 19:127–137.Google Scholar
  34. Curtis PS, Vogel CS, Pregitzer KS, Zak DR, Teeri JA (1995) Interacting effects of soil fertility and atmospheric CO2 on leaf area growth and carbon gain physiology in Populus x euramericana. New Phytol 129:253–263.Google Scholar
  35. Davis DD, Skelly JM (1992a) Growth response of four species of eastern hardwood tree seedlings exposed to ozone, acidic precipitation, and sulfur dioxide. J Am Pollut Contr Assoc 42:309–311.Google Scholar
  36. Davis DD, Skelly JM (1992b) Foliar sensitivity of eight eastern hardwood tree species to ozone. Water Air Soil Pollut 62:269–277.Google Scholar
  37. Dickson RE, Coleman MD, Riemenschneider DE, Isebrands JG, Hogan GD, Karnosky DF (1998) Growth of five hybrid poplar genotypes exposed to interacting elevated CO2 and O3. Can J For Res 28:1706–1716.Google Scholar
  38. Dochinger LS, Bender FW, Fox FL, Heck WW (1970) Chlorotic dwarf of eastern white pine caused by an ozone and sulfur dioxide interaction. Nature 225:476.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Eamus D (1991) The interaction of rising CO2 and temperatures with water use efficiency. Plant Cell Environ 14:843–852.Google Scholar
  40. Eamus D, Jarvis PG (1989) The direct effects of increase in the global atmospheric CO2 concentration on natural and commercial temperate trees and forests. Adv Ecol Res 19:1–55.Google Scholar
  41. Eberhardt JC, Brennan E, Kuser J (1988) The effect of fertilizer treatment on ozone response and growth of eastern white pine. J Arborcult 14:153–155.Google Scholar
  42. Fowells HH (1965) Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States. Agric Handbook271. United States Department of Argiculture (USDA) Forest Service, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  43. Fox S, Mickler RA (eds) (1996) Impacts of Air Pollutants on Southern Pine Forests. Ecological Studies 118. Springer-Verlag, New York.Google Scholar
  44. Fuentes JD, Dann TF (1994) Ground-level ozone in eastern Canada: seasonal variations, trends, and occurrences of high concentrations. J Air Waste Manage Assoc 44:1019–1026.Google Scholar
  45. Gebauer RLE, Reynolds JF, Strain BR (1996) Allometric relations and growth in Pinus taeda: the effect of elevated CO2 and changing N availability. New Phytol 134:85–93.Google Scholar
  46. Greitner CS, Pell EJ, Winner WE (1994) Analysis of aspen foliage exposed to multiple stresses: ozone, nitrogen deficiency and drought. New Phytol 127:579–589.Google Scholar
  47. Griffin DH, Schaedle M, DeVit MJ, Manion PD (1991) Clonal variation of Populus tremuloides response to diurnal drought stress. Tree Physiol 8:297–304.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Gunderson CA, Norby RJ, Wullschleger SD (1993) Foliar gas exchange responses of two deciduous hardwoods during 3 threes of growth in elevated CO2: no loss of photosynthetic enhancement. Plant Cell Environ 16:797–807.Google Scholar
  49. Gunthardt-Goerg MS, Schmutz P, Matyssek R, Bucher JB (1996) Leaf and stem structure of poplar (Populus x euramericana) as influenced by O3, NO2, their combination, and different soil N supplies. Can J For Res 26:649–657.Google Scholar
  50. Hackett RL, Piva RJ (1994) Pulpwood Production in the North Central Region, 1992. Res Bull NC-111. United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station, St. Paul, MN.Google Scholar
  51. Heagle AS, Body DE, Heck WW (1973) An open-top field chamber to assess the impact of air pollution on plants. J Environ Qual 2:365–368.Google Scholar
  52. Hendrey GR, Kimball BA (1994) The FACE Program. Agric For Meteorol 70: 3–14.Google Scholar
  53. Herms DA, Mattson WJ (1992) The dilemma of plants: to grow or defend. Quart Rev Biol 67(3):283–335.Google Scholar
  54. Herms DA, Mattson WJ, Karowe DN, Coleman MD, Trier TM, Birr BA, Isebrands JG (1996) Variable performance of outbreak defoliators on aspen clones exposed to elevated CO2 and O3. In: Horn J, Birdsey R, O’Brian K (eds) Proceedings 1995 Meeting of the Northern Global Change Program, 14-16 March, United States Department of Argiculture, Gen Tech Rep NE-214. Radnor, PA, pp 43–55.Google Scholar
  55. Hogsett WE, Weber JE, Tingey D, Herstrom A, Lee EH, Laurence JA (1997) Environmental auditing: an approach for characterizing tropospheric ozone risk to forests. Environ Manage 21:105–120.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Houghton JT, Meira Filho LG, Callander BA, Harris N, Kattenberg A, Maskell K (eds) IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) (1996) Climate Change 1995: The Science of Climate Change. Contribution of Working Group I to the Second Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.Google Scholar
  57. Houston D (1974) Response of selected Pinus strobus L. clones to fumigation with sulfur dioxide and ozone. Can J For Res 4:65–68.Google Scholar
  58. Houston D, Stairs GR (1973) Genetic control of sulfur dioxide and ozone tolerance in eastern white pine. Forest Sci 19:267–271.Google Scholar
  59. Idso SB, Kimball BA, Hendrix DL (1996) Effects of atmospheric CO2 enrichment on chlorophyll and nitrogen concentrations of sour orange leaves. Environ Exp Bot 36:323–331.Google Scholar
  60. Ineichen K, Wieneken V, Wieken A (1995) Shoots, roots, and ectomycorrhiza formation of pine seedlings at elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide. Plant Cell Environ 18:703–707.Google Scholar
  61. Ingestad T, Ågren GI (1995) Plant nutrition and growth: basic principles. Plant Soil 168-169:15–20.Google Scholar
  62. Ingestad T, Lund AB (1986) Theory and techniques for steady state mineral nutrition and growth of plants. Scand J For Res 1:433–453.Google Scholar
  63. Jensen KF (1985) Response of yellow poplar seedlings to intermittent fumigation. Environ Pollut 38:183–191.Google Scholar
  64. Jensen KF, Patton RL (1990) Response of yellow-poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.) seedlings to simulated acid rain and ozone. 1. Growth modifications. Environ Exper Bot 30:59–66.Google Scholar
  65. Karnosky DF (1976) Threshold levels for foliar injury to Populus tremuloides Michx. by sulfur dioxide and ozone. Can J For Res 6:166–169.Google Scholar
  66. Karnosky DF (1981) Changes in eastern white pine stands related to air pollution stress. Mitt Forst Bundes Wien 137:41–45.Google Scholar
  67. Karnosky DF, Gagnon ZE, Reed DD, Witter JA (1992a) Effects of genotype on the response of Populus tremuloides Michx. to ozone and nitrogen deposition. Water Air Soil Pollut 62:189–199.Google Scholar
  68. Karnosky DF, Gagnon ZE, Reed DD, Witter JA (1992b) Growth and biomass allocation of symptomatic and asymptomatic Populus tremuloides clones in response to seasonal ozone exposures. Can J For Res 22:1785–1788.Google Scholar
  69. Karnosky DF, Gagnon ZE,, Dickson RE, Coleman MD, Lee EH, Isebrands JG (1996) Changes in growth, leaf abscission, and biomass associated with seasonal tropospheric ozone exposures of Populus tremuloides clones and seedlings. Can J For Res 26:23–37.Google Scholar
  70. Karnosky DF, Podila GK, Gagnon Z, Pechter P, Akkapeddi A, Sheng Y, Riemenschneider DE, Coleman MD, Dickson RE, Isebrands JG (1997) Genetic control of responses to interacting tropospheric ozone and CO2 in Populus tremuloides. Chemosphere 36:807–812.Google Scholar
  71. Karnosky DF, Mankovska B, Percy K, Dickson RE, Podila GK, Sober J, Noormets A, Hendrey G, Coleman MD, Kubiske M, Pregitzer KS, Isebrands JG (1999) Effects of tropospheric O3 on trembling aspen and interaction with CO2: results from an O3-gradient and a FACE experiment. Water Air Soil Pollut 116:1–2.Google Scholar
  72. Keeling CD, Whort TP, Wahlen M, VanderPlicht J (1995) Interannual extremes in the rate of rise of atmospheric carbon dioxide since 1980. Nature 375:666–670.Google Scholar
  73. Kerr RA (1997) Greenhouse forecasting still cloudy. Science 276:1040–1042.Google Scholar
  74. Kerstiens G, Townend J, Heath J, Mansfield TA (1995) Effects of water and nutrient availability on physiological responses of woody species to elevated CO2. Forestry 68:303–315.Google Scholar
  75. Kimball BA (1990) Impact of Carbon Dioxide, Trace Gases, and Climate Change on Global Agriculture. American Society of Agronomy. Special Pupl. #53. American Soc Agron, Madison, WI.Google Scholar
  76. Koch GW, Mooney HA (1996) Carbon Dioxide and Terrestrial Ecosystems. Academic Press, San Diego, California.Google Scholar
  77. Kozlowski TT (1979) Tree Growth and Environmental Stresses. University of Washington Press, Seattle, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  78. Kozlowski TT, Constantinidou HA (1986a) Responses of woody plants to environmental pollution. Part I. Sources and types of pollutants and plant response. For Abst 47:5–51.Google Scholar
  79. Kozlowski TT, Constantinidou HA (1986b) Responses of woody plants to environmental pollution. Part II. Factors affecting responses to pollution and alleviation of pollution effects. For Abst 47:105–132.Google Scholar
  80. Kress LW, Skelly JM (1982) Response of several eastern forest tree species to chronic doses of ozone and nitrogen dioxide. Plant Dis 66:1149–1152.Google Scholar
  81. Krupa SV, Kickert RN (1993) The greenhouse effect: the impacts of carbon dioxide (CO2), ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation and ozone (O3) on vegetation (crops). Vegetation 104/105:223–238.Google Scholar
  82. Kull O, Sober A, Coleman MD, Dickson RE, Isebrands JG, Gagnon Z, Karnosky DF (1996) Photosynthetic responses of aspen clones to simultaneous exposures of ozone and CO2. Can J For Res 26:639–648.Google Scholar
  83. Laurence JA, Amundson RG, Friend AL, Pell EJ, Temple PJ (1994) Allocation of carbon in plants under stress: an analysis of the ROPIS experiments. J Environ Qual 23:412–417.Google Scholar
  84. Lee HSI, Jarvis PG (1995) Trees differ from crops and from each other in their responses to increases in CO2 concentration. J Biogeo 22:323–330.Google Scholar
  85. Lefohn AS, Pinkerton JE (1988) High resolution characterization of ozone data for sites located in forested areas of the United States. J Am Pollut Contr Assoc 38:1504–1511.Google Scholar
  86. Lincoln DE, Fajer ED, Johnson RH (1993) Plant-insect herbivore interactions in elevated CO2 environments. Tree 8:64–68.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Lindroth RL, Arteel GE, Kinney KK (1995) Responses of three saturniid species to paper birch grown under enriched CO2 atmospheres. Funct Ecol 9:306–311.Google Scholar
  88. Lindroth RL, Reich PB, Tjoelker MG, Volin JC, Oleksyn J (1993) Light environment alters response to ozone stress in seedlings of Acer saccharum Marsh. and hybrid Populus L. New Phytol 124:647–661.Google Scholar
  89. Linzon SN, Chevone BI (1988) Tree decline in North America. Environ Pollut 40:87–99.Google Scholar
  90. Lippert M, Haberle K-H, Steiner K, Payer H-D, Rehfuess K-E (1996) Interactive effects of elevated CO2 and O3 on photosynthesis and biomass production of clonal 5-year-old Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.) under different nitrogen nutrition and irrigation treatments. Trees 10:382–392.Google Scholar
  91. Lloyd J, Farquhar GD (1996) The CO2 dependence of photosynthesis, plant growth responses to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations and their interaction with soil nutrient status. I. General principles and forest ecosystems. Funct Ecol 10:4–32.Google Scholar
  92. Mahoney MJ, Skelly JM, Chevone BI, Moore LD (1984) Response of yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.) seedling shoot growth to low concentrations of O3, SO2, and NO2. Can J For Res 14:150–153.Google Scholar
  93. Maron JL (1998) Insect herbivory above-and belowground: individual and joint effects on plant fitness. Ecology 79:1281–1293.Google Scholar
  94. Matyssek R, Keller T, Koike T (1993) Branch growth and leaf gas exchange of Populus tremula exposed to low ozone concentrations throughout two growing seasons. Environ Pollut 79:1–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. McLaughlin SB (1985) Effects of air pollution on forests: a critical review. J Air Pollut Contr Assoc 35:512–534.Google Scholar
  96. McLaughlin SB, McConathy RK, Duvick D, Mann LK (1982) Effects of chronic air pollution stress on photosynthesis, carbon allocation and growth of white pine trees. For Sci 28:60–70.Google Scholar
  97. McLeod AR, Long SP (1999) Free-air carbon dioxide enrichment (FACE) in global change research: a review. Advan Ecol Res 28:1–56.Google Scholar
  98. Mickler RA, Fox S (eds) (1988) The Productivity and Sustainability of Southern Forest Ecosystems in a Changing Environment. Ecological Studies 128. Springer-Verlag, New York.Google Scholar
  99. Miller PR, Arbaugh MJ, Temple PJ (1997) Ozone and its known and potential effects on forests in the western United States. In: Sanderman H (ed) Forest Decline and Ozone. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Germany, pp 39–67.Google Scholar
  100. Mooney HA, Drake BG, Luxmoore RJ, Oechel WC, Pitelka LF (1991) Predicting ecosystem responses to elevated CO2 concentrations. BioScience 41:96–104.Google Scholar
  101. Mortensen LM (1995) Effects of carbon dioxide concentration on biomass production and partitioning in Betula pubescens Ehrh. Seedlings at different ozone and temperature regimes. Environ Pollut 87:337–343.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Norby RJ, Gunderson CA, Wullschleger SD, O’Neill EG, McCracken MK (1992) Productivity and compensatory responses of yellow-poplar trees in elevated CO2. Nature 357:322–324.Google Scholar
  103. Norby RJ, O’Neill EG (1991) Leaf area compensation and nutrient interactions in CO2-enriched seedlings of yellow-poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.). New Phytol 117:515–528.Google Scholar
  104. O’Neill EG, Luxmoore RJ, Norby RJ (1987) Elevated atmospheric CO2 effects on seedlings growth, nutrient uptake, and rhizosphere bacterial populations of Liriodendron tulipifera L. Plant Soil 104:3–11.Google Scholar
  105. Pääkkonen E, Holopainen T (1995) Influence of nitrogen supply on the response of clones of birch (Betula pendula Roth.) to ozone. New Phytol 129:595–603.Google Scholar
  106. Pell EJ, Winner WE, Vinten-Johansen C, Mooney HA (1990) Response of radish to multiple stresses. I. Physiological and growth responses to changes in ozone and nitrogen. New Phytol 115:439–446.Google Scholar
  107. Pettersson R, McDonald AJS, Stadenberg I (1993) Response of small birch plants (Betula pendula Roth.) to elevated CO2 and nitrogen supply. Plant Cell Environ 16:1115–1121.Google Scholar
  108. Powell DS, Faulkner JL, Darr DR, Zhu Z, MacCleery DW (1992) Forest Resources of the U.S. Gen Tech Rep RM-234. United States Department of Argiculture (USDA) Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Ft Collins, Colorado.Google Scholar
  109. Pye JM (1988) Impact of ozone on the growth and yield of trees: a review. J Environ Qual 17:347–360.Google Scholar
  110. Rainerr M, Gunthardt-Goerg MS, Landolt W, Keller T (1993) Whole-plant growth and leaf formation in ozonated hybrid poplar (Populus x euramericana). Environ Pollut 81:207–212.Google Scholar
  111. Rebbeck J (1993) Investigation of long-term effects of ozone and elevated carbon dioxide on eastern forest species: first-year response. In: Flagler R (ed) Proceedings of the 86th Annual meeting of the Air & Waste Management Association, 13-18 June 1993, Denver, CO. 93-TA-43.02. pp 1–10.Google Scholar
  112. Rebbeck J (1996a) Chronic ozone effects on three northeastern hardwood species: growth and biomass. Can J For Res 26:1788–1798.Google Scholar
  113. Rebbeck J (1996b) The chronic response of yellow-poplar and eastern white pine to ozone and elevated carbon dioxide: three-year summary. In: Hom J, Birdsey R, O’Brian K (eds) Proceedings, 1995 Meeting of the Northern Global Change Research Program, 14-16 March 1995, Pittsburgh, PA. Gen Tech Rep NE-214. United States Department of Argiculture (USDA) Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, Radnor, PA, pp 23–30.Google Scholar
  114. Rebbeck J, Loats KV (1997) Ozone effects on seedling sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) and yellow-poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.): gas exchange. Can J For Res 27:1595–1605.Google Scholar
  115. Rebbeck J, Scherzer AJ, Loats KV (1993) First season effects of elevated CO2 and O3 on yellow-poplar and white pine seedlings. Bull Ecol Soc Am 74(2) (Suppl):403–404.Google Scholar
  116. Rebbeck J, Scherzer AJ, Loats KV (1995) Effects of two years of exposure to ozone and elevated carbon dioxide on the physiological response of white pine and yellow poplar. Ohio J Sci 95:34–35.Google Scholar
  117. Reich PB (1987) Quantifying plant response to ozone: a unifying theory. Tree Physiol 3:63–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Reich PB, Schoettle AW, Stroo HF, Amundson RG (1988) Effects of ozone and acid rain on white pine (Pinus strobus) seedlings grown in five soils. III. Nutrient relations. Can J Bot 66:1517–1531.Google Scholar
  119. Roberts BR (1990) Physiological response of yellow-poplar seedlings to simulated acid rain, ozone fumigation, and drought. For Ecol Manage 31:215–224.Google Scholar
  120. Roth SK, Lindroth RL (1994) Effects of CO2-mediated changes in paper birch and white pine chemistry on gypsy moth performance. Oecologia 98:133–138.Google Scholar
  121. Scherzer AJ, Rebbeck J (1995) Effects of two years of exposure to ozone and elevated carbon dioxide on foliar N and P dynamics of yellow-poplar. Ohio J Sci 95:35.Google Scholar
  122. Scherzer AJ, Rebbeck J, Boerner REJ (1998) Foliar nitrogen dynamics and decomposition of yellow-poplar and eastern white pine during four seasons of exposure to elevated ozone and carbon dioxide. For Ecol Manage 109: 355–366.Google Scholar
  123. Sharkey TD, Loreto F, Delwiche CF (1991) High carbon dioxide and sun-shade effects on isoprene emission from oak and aspen tree leaves. Plant Cell Environ 14:333–338.Google Scholar
  124. Sheng Y, Podila GK, Karnosky DF (1997) Differences in O3-induced Superoxide dismutase and glutathione antioxidant expression in O3 tolerance and sensitive trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) clones. For Genetics 4:31–41.Google Scholar
  125. Simini M, Skelly JM, Davis DD, Savage JE (1992) Sensitivity of four hardwood species to ambient ozone in north central Pennsylvania. Can J For Res 22:1789–1799.Google Scholar
  126. Stine RA, Baughman MJ (1992) White Pine Symposium Proceedings: History, Ecology, Policy and Management. Publ NR-BU-6044-S. University of Minnesota, St Paul, MN.Google Scholar
  127. Strain BR (1987) Direct effects of increasing atmospheric CO2 on plants and ecosystems. Trends Ecol Evol 2:18–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Stroo HF, Reich PB, Schoettle AW, Amundson RG (1988) Effects of ozone and acid rain on white pine (Pinus strobus) seedlings grown in five soils. II. Mycorrhizal infection. Can J Bot 66:1510–1516.Google Scholar
  129. Swank WT, Vose JM (1990-91) Watershed-scale responses to ozone events in a Pinus strobus L. plantation. Water Air Soil Poll 54:119–133.Google Scholar
  130. Taylor GE Jr. (1994) Role of genotype in the response of loblolly pine to tropospheric ozone: effects at the whole-tree, stand, and regional level. J Environ Qual 23:63–82.Google Scholar
  131. Taylor GE Jr., Johnson DW, Andersen CP (1994) Air pollution and forest ecosystems: a regional to global perspective. Ecol Appl 4:662–689.Google Scholar
  132. Thornley JHM, Cannell MGR (1996) Temperate forest responses to carbon dioxide, temperature and nitrogen: a model analysis. Plant Cell Environ 19:1331–1348.Google Scholar
  133. Tingey DT, Hogsett WE (1985) Water stress reduces ozone injury via a stomatal mechanism. Plant Physiol 77:944–947.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Tissue DT, Thomas RB, Strain BR (1997) Atmospheric CO2 enrichment increases growth and photosynthesis of Pinus taeda: a 4 year experiment in the field. Plant Cell Environ 20:1123–1134.Google Scholar
  135. Tjoelker MG, Luxmoore RJ (1991) Soil nitrogen and chronic ozone stress influence physiology, growth and nutrient status of Pinus taeda L. and Liriodendron tulipifera L. seedlings. New Phytol 119:69–81.Google Scholar
  136. Tjoelker MG, Volin JC, Oleksyn J, Reich PB (1993) Light environment alters response to ozone stress in seedlings of Acer saccharum Marsh. and hybrid Populus L. I. In situ net photosynthesis, dark respiration and growth. New Phytol 124:627–636.Google Scholar
  137. Tomlinson PT, Anderson PD (1998) Ontogeny affects response of northern red oak seedlings to elevated CO2 and water stress. II. Recent photosynthate distribution and growth. New Phytol 140:493–504.Google Scholar
  138. Trier TM, Mattson WJ (1997) Needle mining by the spruce budworm provides sustenance in the midst of privation. OIKOS 79:241–246.Google Scholar
  139. Volin JC, Reich PB, Givnish TJ (1998) Elevated carbon dioxide ameliorates the effects of ozone on photosynthesis and growth: species respond similarly regardless of photosynthetic pathway or plant functional group. New Phytol 138:315–325.Google Scholar
  140. Wang D, Karnosky DF, Bormann FH (1986) Effects of ambient ozone on the productivity of Populus tremuloides Michx. grown under field conditions. Can J For Res 16:47–55.Google Scholar
  141. Winner WE (1994) Mechanistic analysis of plant responses to air pollution. Ecol Appl 4(4):651–661.Google Scholar
  142. Woodman JN (1987) Pollution-induced injury in North American forests: facts and suspicions. Tree Physiology 3:1–15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Wullschleger SD, Norby RJ, Gunderson CA (1997) Forest trees and their response to atmospheric carbon dioxide enrichment: a compilation of results. In: Allen LH, Kurkham MB, Olszyk DM, Whitman CE (eds) Advances in Carbon Dioxide Effects Research. ASA special pub 61. American Society of Agronomists, Madison, Wisconsin, pp 79–100.Google Scholar
  144. Wullschleger SD, Norby RJ, Hendrix DL (1992) Carbon exchange rates, chlorophyll content, and carbohydrate status of two forest tree species exposed to carbon dioxide. Tree Physiol 10:21–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Yunus M, Iqbal M (1996) Plant Response to Air Pollution. John Wiley, Chichester, England.Google Scholar
  146. Zak DR, Pregitzer KS, Curtis PS, Teeri JA, Fogel R, Randlett DL (1993) Elevated atmospheric CO2 and feedback between the carbon and nitrogen cycles. Plant Soil 151:105–117.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Judson G. Isebrands
  • Richard E. Dickson
  • Joanne Rebbeck
  • David F. Karnosky

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations