Modulatory Systems of the Brainstem

  • Oswald Steward


As noted in previous chapters, the brainstem contains components of a number of different sensory and motor systems, including (1) second-, and third-order neurons of the somatosensory, auditory, and vestibular systems; (2) lower motor neurons in the cranial nerve nuclei; (3) preganglionic neurons of the parasympathetic nervous system; (4) circuitry that mediates autonomic reflexes (for example, those that control breathing and cardiovascular function); (5) neurons that give rise to the descending brainstem pathways of the motor system (reticulospinal and vestibulospinal tracts); (6) neuronal groups that are part of cerebellar circuitry (olivary complex and the pontine nuclei); and (7) various sensory and motor tracts that relay information to and from the spinal cord.


Reticular Formation Reticular Nucleus Noradrenergic Neuron Locus Ceruleus Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Oswald Steward
    • 1
  1. 1.Reeve-Irvine Research Center,1105 Gillespie Neuroscience Research FacilityUniversity of California, IrvineIrvineUSA

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