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Mesocosms in Ecotoxicology (1): Outdoor Aquatic Systems

  • Thierry Caquet
  • Laurent Lagadic
  • Steven R. Sheffield
Part of the Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology book series (RECT, volume 165)

Abstract

The first deliberately constructed artificial aquatic ecosystems were designed for ecological studies to develop and validate new theories on ecosystem structure and function (Hall et al. 1970; Lawton 1995). Such systems are currently used worldwide and seem to be promising in the developing field of ecological engineering (Kangas and Adey 1996; Odum 1996). It became rapidly evident that model ecosystems could also provide valuable information for the assessment of the fate and effects of chemicals. In particular, they provide the opportunity to simultaneously identify direct and indirect effects of toxicants and to investigate responses at many different levels of biological organization in fairly controlled conditions of exposure. Processes that reduce, such as adsorption on suspended solids or sediments, or enhance, such as bioturbation or bioaccumulation, the bioavailability of contaminants can also be taken into account using such experimental devices. Because of their relevance in environmental risk assessment, mesocosms have sometimes been required for the registration of new chemicals, especially pesticides, and corresponding guidelines and guidance documents have been proposed (Touart 1988; Crossland 1990; SETAC-RESOLVE 1992; SETAC-Europe 1992). New guidelines are currently under evaluation (OECD 1996; USEPA-OPPTS 1996).

Keywords

Hazard Assessment Ecological Risk Assessment Environ Toxicol Experimental Pond Artificial Stream 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Thierry Caquet
    • 1
    • 2
  • Laurent Lagadic
    • 1
  • Steven R. Sheffield
    • 3
  1. 1.INRA, Equipe d’Ecotoxicologie Aquatique, Station Commune de Recherche en IchtyophysiologieBiodiversité et Environnement, Campus de BeaulieuRennes CedexFrance
  2. 2.Laboratoire d’Ecologie et de ZoologieUPRESA CNRS 8079 Université de Paris-SudOrsay CedexFrance
  3. 3.The Institute of Wildlife and Environmental Toxicology, Department of Environmental ToxicologyClemson UniversityPendletonUSA

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