On the Problem of the Most Efficient Tests of Statistical Hypotheses
The problem of testing statistical hypotheses is an old one. Its origins are usually connected with the name of Thomas Bayes, who gave the well-known theorem on the probabilities a posteriori of the possible “causes” of a given event.* Since then it has been discussed by many writers of whom we shall here mention two only, Bertrand† and Borel,‡ whose differing views serve well to illustrate the point from which we shall approach the subject.
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