Ground States of the Heisenberg Model
In Section 3.2, the antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model of spin half emerged as an effective Hamiltonian for Mott insulators. In general, the Heisenberg Hamiltonian is a fundamental model for quantum magnetism, as weIl as other phenomena that can be effectively described by quantum spin operators.1 A wide range of concepts and techniques can be learned from studies of its ground state, excitations , and thermodynamic phases.
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